Table 2

Characteristics of patients with past help-seeking actions from a GP, psychiatrist or psychologist*

VariableGP
OR (95% CI)
Psychiatrist
OR (95% CI)
Psychologist
OR (95% CI)
Gender (female)
 Male1.08 (0.80 to 1.47)1.30 (0.83 to 2.04)0.79 (0.52 to 1.21)
Age group (18–34 years)
 35–54 years0.94 (0.64 to 1.38)1.04 (0.60 to 1.79)0.76 (0.48 to 1.20)
 55 years and above0.93 (0.56 to 1.53)0.81 (0.39 to 1.66)0.22 (0.09 to 0.52)†
Education (secondary and above)
 Primary or no formal education0.96 (0.63 to 1.48)0.71 (0.39 to 1.30)0.32 (0.11 to 0.96)†
Marital status (married)
 All others‡1.32 (0.96 to 1.81)1.44 (0.92 to 2.24)1.72 (1.10 to 2.67)†
Employment status (employed)
 All others§0.96 (0.67 to 1.37)1.32 (0.81 to 2.16)1.01 (0.61 to 1.67)
Household monthly income (≤HK$ 30 000)
 >HK$ 30 0001.06 (0.77 to 1.46)1.01 (0.63 to 1.62)1.73 (1.14 to 2.62)†
District of residence (Hong Kong Island)
 Kowloon0.68 (0.47 to 0.99)†1.04 (0.62 to 1.74)0.80 (0.47 to 1.35)
 New Territories and Outlying Islands0.59 (0.42 to 0.83)†0.74 (0.45 to 1.23)0.83 (0.53 to 1.30)
Physical comorbidities (none)
 At least one1.51 (1.08 to 2.12)†0.67 (0.41 to 1.09)1.11 (0.71 to 1.75)
Family history of mental illness (no)
 Yes1.42 (0.96 to 2.09)1.23 (0.73 to 2.07)1.01 (0.58 to 1.74)
Self-reported diagnosed depression (no)
 Yes7.45 (5.28 to 10.52)†43.85 (27.32 to 70.38)†7.34 (4.43 to 12.18)†
Self-reported diagnosed other MI (no)
 Yes4.25 (2.77 to 6.52)†6.88 (4.21 to 11.26)†5.32 (3.02 to 9.35)†
PHQ-9 score at baseline (≤9)
 >92.24 (1.59 to 3.15)§1.22 (0.75 to 1.97)1.00 (0.58 to 1.72)
Service sector (public)
 Private0.47 (0.31 to 0.71)†1.27 (0.75 to 2.18)0.88 (0.46 to 1.67)
  • Brackets indicate reference categories.

  • Hosmer and Lemeshow tests suggested an adequate model fit for all three models: GP, χ2=9.973, p=0.267; psychiatrist, χ2=10.092, p=0.259; psychologist, χ2=4.138, p=0.844.

  • *Respondents included all cross-sectional participants at baseline.

  • †Statistically significant at p<0.05.

  • ‡‘All others’ in marital status includes being single, divorced or widow.

  • §‘All others’ in employment status includes being unemployed, retired, housemaker or student.

  • GP, general practitioner; MI, mental illness; PHQ, Patient Health Questionnaire.