Table 1

Basic characteristics of included studies

Study IDSample size (randomised/analysed)
Age (years)Diagnosis standardInterventionControlDuring of treatmentMain outcomes (intergroup differences)Adverse effects reportMain findings from original study
Huang et al30185/185
T: 52/40
C: 51/42
T: 52.9±7.0
C: 54.3±6.4
CGMH-2004Radix Salviae Miltiorrhizae tablet (4 tablets, 3 times/day)+controlHydrochlorothiazide (10 mg four time a day)+candesartan cilexetil capsules (8 mg four times a day)+nifedipine (10 mg twice daily)+atorvastatin tablet (10 mg four times a day)*24 weeksSBP and DBP: p<0.05Y
T: distending feeling in head (2 cases)
C: nausea, vomiting and other gastrointestinal reactions (2 cases)
Long-term use of Radix Salviae Miltiorrhizae tablet can improve BP and blood lipids for resistant hypertension; however, as complementary therapies, it could enhance the antihypertensive effect more significantly.
Wang and Zheng3198/98
T: 38/24
C: 19/17
T: 41.5±11.2
C: 42.5±13.4
CGMH-2004Decoction of Radix Angelicae Sinensis and Radix Astragali (300 mL/d)+controlHydrochlorothiazide (25–50 mg four times a day)+metoprolol tartrate (50 mg twice daily)+nifedipine controlled release tablet (30–60 mg four times a day)+benazepril hydrochloride tablet (10 mg four times a day)†4 weeksSBP and DBP: p<0.05NDecoction of Radix Angelicae Sinensis and Radix Astragali combined with antihypertensive drugs may reduce BP, improve cardiac function, modulate blood lipids metabolism and regulate blood viscosity.
Zhang et al3240/40
T: 27
C: 13
(T/C: NR)
1978 WHO-ISH GMHGanoderma Lucidumseu Sinensis tablet (110 mg, 3 times/day)+controlAntihypertensive drugs (no detailed information about dosage)3 monthsSBP and DBP: p<0.01NGanoderma Lucidumseu Sinensis tablet was particularly beneficial for the treatment of resistant hypertension with hyperviscosity and hyperglycaemia. It is also helpful to prevent and relieve complications in hypertension.
Zhang et al3363/63
T: 30/3
C: 27/3
T: 80.9±3.7
C: 79.0±4.7
1999 WHO-ISH GMHNS 250 mL+gastrodin injection (20 mL/day)+controlAmlodipine, irbesartan and hydrochlorothiazide (no detailed information about dosage)4 weeksSBP and DBP: p>0.05NGastrodin injection was beneficial to old patients with refractory hypertension, and can improve the balance of ET and NO levels in plasma.
T: 17/13
C: 16/14
T: 56.43±8.21
C: 57.52±8.33
CGMH-2004Chinese herbal medicine (1 dose/day)+controlDiuretics+ACEI+β-blockers, and/or dihydropyridine calcium antagonists1 monthSBP and DBP: p<0.01NChinese herbal medicine combined with antihypertensive drugs was effective in lowering BP in patients with resistant hypertension.
  • *Another class of antihypertensive drugs may be combined when blood pressure control is not satisfied.

  • †Taking at least two kinds of antihypertensive drugs.

  • C, control group; CGMH-2004, Chinese Guidelines for the Management of Hypertension-2004; N, no; NR, not reported; NS, normal saline; T, treatment group; WHO-ISH GMH, WHO-ISH guidelines for the management of hypertension; Y, yes.