Table 3

Select socioeconomic factors and BCS practice

BSE practiceCBE practiceMammogram practice
YesNoYesNoYesNo
Variablesn (%)n (%)p Valuen (%)n (%)p Valuen (%)n (%)p Value
Nationalityχ2 (4, N=1063)=15.02, p=0.005χ2 (4, N=1063)=10.30, p=0.036χ2 (4, N=695)=9.70, p=0.046
 Qatari citizen69 (12.5)485 (87.5)163 (29.4)391 (70.6)98 (25.9)280 (74.1)
 Other GCC resident7 (6.0)109 (94.0)29 (25.0)87 (75.0)9 (13.6)57 (86.4)
 Levant resident31 (18.2)139 (81.8)67 (39.4)103 (60.6)39 (33.9)76 (66.1)
 North Africa resident23 (21.5)84 (78.5)40 (37.4)67 (62.6)22 (30.6)50 (64.9)
 Other resident18 (15.5)98 (84.5)34 (29.3)82 (70.7)19 (29.7)45 (70.3)
Marital statusχ2 (1, N=1063)=0.23, p=0.635χ2 (1, N=1063)=18.01, p<0.001χ2 (1, N=695)=4.44, p=0.035
 Single29 (12.9)195 (87.1)44 (19.6)180 (80.4)29 (20.0)116 (80.0)
 Married119 (14.2)720 (85.8)289 (34.4)550 (65.6)158 (28.7)392 (71.3)
Number of childrenχ2 (2, N=1063)=31.31, p=0.001χ2 (2, N=1063)=10.90, p=0.004χ2 (2, N=695)=6.99, p=0.030
 0 (none)26 (16.1)135 (83.9)35 (21.7)126 (78.3)16 (25.8)46 (74.2)
 ≤588 (17.1)428 (82.9)182 (35.3)334 (45.8)96 (31.9)205 (68.1)
 >534 (8.8)352 (91.2)116 (30.1)270 (69.9)75 (22.6)257 (77.4)
Living areaχ2 (1, N=1063)=2.55, p=0.110χ2 (1, N=1063)=0.29, p=0.588χ2 (1, N=695)=3.00, p=0.083
 Urban137 (14.5)806 (85.5)298 (31.6)645 (68.4)171 (28.0)440 (72.0)
 Semiurban11 (9.2)109 (90.8)35 (29.2)85 (70.8)16 (19.0)68 (81.0)
Education level—participantχ2 (2, N=1063)=30.13, p<0.001χ2 (2, N=1063)=12.58, p=0.002χ2 (2, N=695)=13.99, p=0.001
 ≤Primary/intermediate24 (6.7)335 (93.3)89 (24.8)270 (75.2)60 (20.4)234 (79.6)
 Secondary/trade50 (14.3)300 (85.7)113 (32.3)237 (67.7)61 (28.1)156 (71.9)
 University74 (20.9)280 (79.1)131 (37.0)223 (63.0)66 (35.9)118 (64.1)
Education level—husbandχ2 (2, N=896)=35.22, p<0.001χ2 (2, N=896)=16.24, p<0.001χ2 (2, N=604)=14.06, p=0.001
 ≤Primary/intermediate12 (4.3)264 (95.7)65 (23.6)211 (76.4)41 (18.9)176 (81.1)
 Secondary44 (15.1)248 (84.9)108 (37.0)184 (63.0)53 (28.2)135 (71.8)
 University69 (21.0)259 (79.0)123 (37.5)205 (62.5)70 (35.2)129 (64.8)
Employment status—participantχ2 (1, N=1063)=14.83, p<0.001χ2 (1, N=1063)=2.19, p=0.139χ2 (1, N=695)=1.53, p=0.217
 Employed71 (19.6)291 (80.4)124 (34.4)238 (65.7)57(30.3)131 (69.7)
 Unemployed77 (11.0)624 (89.0)209 (29.8)492 (70.2)130 (25.6)377 (74.4)
Occupation—participantχ2 (4, N=1047)=29.87, p<0.001χ2 (4, N=1047)=3.97, p=0.410χ2 (4, N=685)=4.90, p=0.298
 Unemployed5 (6.7)70 (93.3)27 (36.0)48 (64.0)18 (29.5)43 (70.5)
 Management, science, arts55 (24.4)170 (75.6)74 (32.9)151 (67.1)33 (32.7)68 (67.3)
 Sales and office4 (6.8)55 (93.2)22 (37.3)37 (62.7)13 (35.1)24 (64.9)
 Services, production, other10 (16.1)52 (83.9)22 (35.5)40 (64.5)8 (20.0)32 (80.0)
 Homemaker72 (11.5)554 (88.5)182 (29.1)444 (70.9)112 (25.1)334 (74.9)
Occupation—husbandχ2 (5, N=855)=16.17, p=0.006χ2 (5, N=855)=9.81, p=0.081χ2 (5, N=563)=8.28, p=0.141
 Management57 (18.7)248 (81.3)122 (40.0)183 (60.0)62 (34.3)119 (65.7)
 Service19 (18.1)86 (81.9)38 (36.2)67 (63.8)17 (30.4)39 (69.6)
 Sales and office12 (9.2)118 (90.8)41 (31.5)89 (68.5)28 (31.1)62 (68.9)
 Production, other11 (10.6)93 (89.4)31 (29.8)73 (70.2)16 (21.9)57 (78.1)
 Military14 (15.7)75 (84.3)26 (29.2)63 (70.8)12 (23.5)39 (76.5)
 Unemployed/retired8 (6.6)114 (93.4)33 (27.0)89 (73.0)24 (21.4)88 (78.6)
Annual household incomeχ2 (2, N=577)=7.39, p=0.025χ2 (2, N=577)=23.44, p<0.001χ2 (2, N=354)=25.71, p<0.001
 <US$29 39013 (9.4)125 (90.6)27 (19.6)111 (80.4)11 (12.2)79 (87.8)
 US$29 390−US$78 56036 (13.1)238 (86.9)98 (35.8)176 (64.2)53 (31.7)114 (68.3)
 >US$78 56033 (20.0)132 (80.0)76 (46.1)89 (53.9)45 (46.4)52 (53.6)
  • BCS, breast cancer screening; BSE, breast self-examination; CBE, clinical breast examination; GCC, Gulf Cooperation Council.