Table 4

Effect of NEMP on total health expenditures by inpatient and outpatient care

VariableOutpatientInpatient
OLSFEOLSFE
NEMP−0.120 (0.359)−0.502** (0.139)−0.063 (0.300)−0.405** (0.125)
After−0.024 (0.020)−0.194** (0.033)−0.024 (0.020)−0.064 (0.086)0.133** (0.027)−0.031 (0.028)0.132** (0.026)0.017 (0.058)
NEMP×After−0.026 (0.047)−0.042 (0.044)−0.026 (0.047)−0.043 (0.042)−0.108* (0.048)−0.113* (0.041)−0.093 (0.048)−0.106* (0.036)
Certified doctors0.016* (0.006)−0.008 (0.005)0.014* (0.005)−0.003 (0.003)
Bed−0.003 (0.002)0.002 (0.003)−0.001 (0.002)0.004 (0.002)
Log GDP0.890** (0.127)0.251 (0.452)0.793** (0.085)0.569* (0.202)
Intercept3.749** (0.196)−5.190** (1.234)3.705** (0.010)1.222 (4.522)7.012** (0.185)−1.001 (0.794)6.988** (0.011)1.199 (2.021)
R20.0090.5050.0070.0170.0160.5950.0870.104
  • *p<0.05, **p<0.01.

  • Robust SEs in parentheses.

  • FE, fixed-effects; GDP, gross domestic product; NEMP, National Essential Medicines Policy; OLS, ordinary least squares.