Table 2

Association* between healthy lifestyle behaviour (HLB) and long duration troublesome low back pain (LTLBP) in men and women with occasional low back pain (LBP) at baseline in 2006

Healthy lifestyle behaviour§Men (n=3646)†Women (n=4658)†
LTLBP/no LTLBP¶ (n/n)Adjusted (Age, SES)‡Adjusted (Age, SES)‡
Crude RR (95% CI)RR (95% CI)RD (95% CI)LTLBP/no LTLBP¶Crude RR (95% CI)RR (95% CI)RD (95% CI)
HLB014/1551.01.00.028/1311.01.00.0
HLB171/8120.97 (0.56 to 1.68)1.02 (0.59 to 1.76)−0.01 (−0.06 to 0.03)94/7350.64 (0.44 to 0.95)0.65 (0.44 to 0.96)−0.05 (−0.12 to 0.01)
HLB2133/14761.00 (0.59 to 1.69)1.05 (0.62 to 1.78)−0.01 (−0.05 to 0.04)181/17210.54 (0.38 to 0.78)0.54 (0.38 to 0.78)−0.07 (−0.13 to −0.01)
HLB360/8180.82 (0.47 to 1.440.85 (0.48 to 1.48)−0.02 (−0.06 to 0.02)125/11870.54 (0.37 to 0.79)0.55 (0.38 to 0.81)−0.07 (−0.13 to −0.01)
HLB46/1010.68 (0.27 to 1.71)0.75 (0.30 to 1.89)−0.03 (−0.07 to 0.01)36/4200.45 (0.28 to 0.71)0.48 (0.31 to 0.77)−0.08 (−0.15 to −0.02)
  • * Log binomial regression estimating the risk ratio (RR) and the risk difference (RD) with 95% CI.

  • †Reduced number of observations due to missing information about socioeconomic status (SES) (men n=292 and women n=398).

  • ‡Adjusted for age in 10-year categories and SES in six categories.

  • §HLB0=no healthy lifestyle factor, HLB1=1 of 4 healthy lifestyle factors, HLB2=2 of 4 factors, HLB3=3 of 4 factors, HLB4=all 4 healthy lifestyle factors. Healthy lifestyle factors included in HLB: non-smoking, no risk consumption of alcohol (≤168 g 100% alcohol/week for men and ≤108 g 100% alcohol/week for women, and consuming alcohol corresponding to ≈ half a bottle of spirits on the same occasion less than once a month), recommended level of leisure physical activity (at least 150 min at moderate intensity or 75 min at high intensity per week or a combination of these activities), and recommended consumption of fruit and vegetables (≥4 servings of fruit and vegetables per day).

  • ¶Numbers of participants with and without LTLBP at follow-up in 2010.