Table 1

Baseline characteristics by categories of the exposure healthy lifestyle behaviour (HLB0–HLB4)* (n=8994)

Baseline characteristics (%)MenWomenInternal dropout M/W (n)
All (n=3938)HLB0 (n=181)HLB1 (n=958)HLB2 (n=1747)HLB3 (n=936)HLB4 (n=116)All (n=5056)HLB0 (n=174)HLB1 (n=897)HLB2 (n=2080)HLB3 (n=1416)HLB4 (n=489)
Proportion of study sample4456
Mean age, years (SD)50 (15)49 (14)48 (15)49 (15)51 (15)50 (14)46 (16)43 (17)47 (15)46 (16)47 (15)46 (14)0/0
Education234/287
 Low1630191414814221713129
 Intermediate434346444035415746423834
 High412735424657452137455057
Civil status0/1
 Married544249565665472741465353
 Unmarried333836323129364937373332
 Divorced/widow/widower13201512136172422171415
SES†292/398
 Unskilled/semiskilled worker14221713129162319161410
 Skilled worker152516141581022129911
 Assistant non-manual employees8810975202221221815
 Intermediate non-manual employees251425242724292323293135
 Employed/self-employed professionals25171828283419717182124
 Self-employed (other than professionals)131414121120638675
Poor sleep‡34/27
 <6 or >8 h/night917910791014111197
Living alone1731191614919242119171710/16
Living with children34243135344238273239414110/16
Psychological distress§1318151311521332322191738/37
Financial stress¶715105439231397617/24
  • *HLB0=no healthy lifestyle factor, HLB1=1 of 4 healthy lifestyle factors, HLB2=2 of 4 factors, HLB3=3 of 4 factors, HLB4 = all 4 healthy lifestyle factors.

  • †Socioeconomic status (SES). For the economically active population, SES was based on current occupation and education. For the non-active population, SES was based on previous occupation, current education or the occupation of spouses.

  • ‡Hours of sleep on a typical night during the workweek (dichotomised into ‘good sleep’: 6–8 h and ‘poor sleep’: <6 or >8 h).

  • §From the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) where a sum score ≥3 was used to assess psychological stress.

  • ¶Financial stress: had to borrow money from relatives and friends to be able to pay for food or rent on several occasions during the previous 12 months.