Table 5

Characteristics of included studies—observational studies

AuthorsStudy methodParticipantsCountryIntervention armControl armTarget period (if applicable)Outcome measures
Appiah et al56Cross-sectional observational studyTuberculosis clinic patients and VCT clientsGhanaTuberculosis clinic-based testingVCT clinic-based testing1–6 monthsUptake of testing and results
Huebner et al55Controlled before and after studiesBathhouse patronsUSARapid VCTConventional VCT11–13 monthsUptake of testing; receipt of test results
Liang et al54Prospective cohort studyMen who have sex with men, injection drug users and commercial sex workersUSARapid HIV testingTraditional serum-based HIV testing9 monthsUptake of testing; HIV prevalence; post-test counselling
Shrestha et al29Cohort studyHigh-risk members of the population11USAOutreach-based HIV testingClinic-based HIV testing23 monthsCost per notification
White et al24Retrospective cohort studyEmergency department patientsUSAPoint-of-care HIV testingLaboratory-based HIV testing6 monthsHIV-testing rates
  • VCT, voluntary counselling and testing.