Table 2

Characteristics of included studies—randomised controlled trials

StudyStudy methodParticipantsCountryIntervention armControl armTarget period (if applicable)Outcome measures
Anaya et al49Randomised controlled trailAge: 18–65 years
Sex: male and female
Setting: adult clinic waiting room patients within the Department of Veteran Affairs
  1. Nurse initiated streamlined VCT with rapid testing: 84 participants

  2. Nurse initiated traditional VCT: 84 participants

Conventional VCT: 83 participantsTesting rates
Coates et al59 60Cluster randomised controlled trialAge: 16–32 years
Sex: male and female
Setting: area of HIV prevalence >1%
Tanzania, Zimbabwe, Thailand, and South AfricaCommunity-based rapid VCT: 63 000 participantsConventional VCT: 52 900 participants36 monthsHIV incidence
Lugada et al51Cluster randomised controlled trialAge: 15–49 years
Sex: male and female
Setting: five SE districts in Uganda* HIV prevalence: 5.6%
UgandaHome-based rapid VCT with ART programme: 4798 participantsConventional clinic-based ART programme: 2386 participants2 yearsUptake of testing; HIV prevalence
Malonza et al50Randomised controlled trailAge: 18–44 years
Sex: female
Setting: antenatal clinic attendees
HIV prevalence: 15–35%
KenyaRapid VCT in health facility: 627 participantsConventional HIV testing (ELISA) test: 622 participants1 yearWait period for tests; receipt of test results; uptake into antiretroviral treatment programmes
Read et al58Randomised controlled trialAge:
Sex: male
Setting: sexual health service
AustraliaRapid VCT
200 participants
Conventional VCT
200 participants
18 monthsIncidence of HIV testing, including testing outside study clinic
Spielberg et al52Cluster randomised trialAge: 14 years and older
Sex: male and female
Setting: needle exchange and bathhouse
  1. Rapid testing with standard counselling: 3965

  2. Oral fluid testing with standard counselling: 4185

  1. Traditional testing with standard counselling: 4364

  2. Traditional testing with option of counselling: 4496

221 daysUptake of HIV testing; receipt of test results
Sweat et al20 57Cluster randomised controlled trialAge: 16–32 years
Sex: male and female
Setting: area of HIV prevalence >1%
Tanzania, Zimbabwe, ThailandCommunity-based rapid VCT: 28 240 participantsConventional VCT: 28 916 participants3 yearsHIV prevalence; uptake of HIV testing, repeat testing
Walensky et al48Prospective randomised controlled trialAge: mean=37.1 years
Sex: male and female
Setting: emergency department patients in a large Boston Hospital
USACounsellor facilitated rapid VCT in emergency department: 2446 participantsConvention HIV testing in emergency department 2409 participants18 monthsOverall testing: offer, acceptance
  • *Jinja, Kamuli, Iganga, Mayuge and Mukuno. ART, antiretroviral therapy; VCT, voluntary counselling and testing.