Table 1

Basic characteristics

Pre
n=328
Post1
n=311
Post2
n=384
Post3
N=293
p Value
Overall
Age in years median (25–75%Q)66 (51–75)67 (53–74)62 (51–72)64 (51–72,5)0.031
Females (%)138 (42.1%)137 (44.1%)153 (39.8%)137 (46.8%)0.321
Initial SAPS median (25–75%Q)34.5 (25.3–44)37 (28–48)35 (24–48.8)36 (25.5–49)0.179
Initial SOFA median (25%–75%Q)4 (2–7)5 (3–7)4 (1–8)5 (1.5–8)0.118
Comorbidities n (%)
 Immune suprressioni37 (11.3%)11 (3.5%)22 (5.7%)29 (9.9%)<0.01
 Cardiovascular148 (45.1%)143 (46%)147 (38.3%)150 (51.2%)0.009
 Pulmonary35 (10.7%)40 (12.9%)79 (20.6%)66 (22.5%)<0.01
 Chronic liver disease17 (5.2%)25 (8.0%)42 (10.9%)36 (12.3%)0.007
 Chronic kidney failure58 (17.7%)45 (14.5%)84 (21.9%)80 (27.3%)0.001
 Metabolic disease169 (51.5%)123 (39.5%)142 (37%)123 (42%)0.001
 Psychiatric disease75 (22.9%)48 (15.4%)24 (6.2%)35 (11.9%)<0.01
 Surgical vs medical (%)278 (84.8%)252 (81%)282 (73.4%)223 (76.1%)0.001
Infections n (%)*
 Pneumonia117 (35.7%)92 (29.6%)131 (34.1%)94 (32.1%)0.387
 Abdominal infections44 (13.4%)22 (7.1%)33 (8.6%)24 (8.2%)0.037
 Urinary tract infections29 (8.8%)28 (9%)23 (6%)20 (6.8%)0.346
 Bone or joint infections16 (4.9%)2 (0.6%)10 (2.6%)7 (2.4%)0.009
 Endocarditis7 (2.1%)8 (2.6%)10 (2.6%)5 (1.7%)0.897
 Wound and soft tissue90 (27.4%)32 (10.3%)17 (4.4%)8 (2.7%)<0.01
 Meningoencephalitis9 (2.7%)1 (0.3%)18 (4.7%)9 (3.1%)0.002
Bacteraemia23 (7%)26 (8.4%)27 (7%)20 (6.8%)0.879
 No focus specified27 (8.2%)29 (9.3%)9 (2.3%)24 (8.2%)<0.01
 Catheter associated7 (2.1%)15 (4.8%)3 (0.8%)12 (4.1%)0.003
Pathogens
 Clostridium difficile infections3 (0.9%)2 (0.6%)10 (2.6%)6 (2%)0.138
 Fungi61 (18.6%)50 (16.1%)46 (12%)61 (20.8%)0.012
 Multidrug resistant pathogens42 (12.8%)27 (8.7%)32 (8.3%)34 (11.6%)0.155
  • *Owing to occurrence of more than one infection per patient and polymicrobial infections, the detection of more than one pathogen is possible.

  • iImmunosuppressive medications like corticosteroids above cushing level, immune suppressive agents, monoclonal antibodies or chemotherapy within the last 6 weeks.