Table 1

Characteristics of eligible patients with prevalent COPD for the study on 1 January 2005

CharacteristicnPer cent
Total16 647100
Age at study start (years)*
Comorbidities (within previous 5 years)
 Myocardial infarction7954.8
 Congestive heart failure178511
 Peripheral vascular disease9225.5
 Cerebrovascular disease11787.1
 Peptic ulcer disease6273.8
 Liver disease1761.1
 Moderate to severe renal disease2871.7
 Any malignancy except lung cancer9505.7
 Alcoholism-related diseases1621.0
 Atrial fibrillation/flutter14008.4
 Medically diagnosed obesity5753.5
 Lung cancer1861.1
 Obstructive sleep apnoea3372.0
 Rheumatoid arthritis1510.9
Treatments within previous 12 months
 Systemic steroids499330
 Oxygen therapy2581.5
COPD treatment
 Short-acting bronchodilators295818
 Long-acting bronchodilator204112
 Double therapy422625
 Triple therapy254215
Infection within previous 3 months
 Prescription for antibiotics510331
 Prescription for antivirals550.3
 Prescription for antibiotics as well as antivirals260.2
  • See the text and online supplementary appendix for definition of GOLD treatment groups.

  • Previous lung volume reduction surgery is not shown in the table because it was rare (close to 0%).

  • *Overall, the median age was 70 years (lower quartile 61 years; upper quartile 77 years).

  • COPD, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; GOLD, Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease.