Table 2

Risk of premature mortality among adults aged 20–59 years in relation to density of CCP or alcohol outlet Q.

Crude relative risk (95% CI)Adjusted relative risk (95% CI)*
Exposure variableAllMalesFemalesAllMalesFemales
CCP density Q
 Q11.00 (Referent)1.00 (Referent)1.00 (Referent)1.00 (Referent)1.00 (Referent)1.00 (Referent)
 Q20.96 (0.89 to 1.03)0.91 (0.83 to 1.00)0.94 (0.84 to 1.05)0.91 (0.84 to 0.98)0.88 (0.80 to 0.98)0.92 (0.81 to 1.03)
 Q31.21 (1.14 to 1.28)1.19 (1.10 to 1.28)1.14 (1.04 to 1.24)1.04 (0.98 to 1.11)1.03 (0.94 to 1.12)1.05 (0.95 to 1.17)
 Q41.24 (1.17 to 1.32)1.25 (1.17 to 1.35)1.16 (1.06 to 1.27)1.07 (1.00 to 1.14)1.07 (0.98 to 1.16)1.08 (0.97 to 1.20)
 Q51.46 (1.38 to 1.54)1.52 (1.42 to 1.63)1.24 (1.13 to 1.36)1.20 (1.12 to 1.29)1.25 (1.15 to 1.36)1.11 (0.99 to 1.24)
All alcohol outlet density Q†
 Q11.00 (Referent)1.00 (Referent)1.00 (Referent)1.00 (Referent)1.00 (Referent)1.00 (Referent)
 Q21.13 (1.06 to 1.20)1.16 (1.07 to 1.25)1.08 (0.99 to 1.19)1.03 (0.96 to 1.09)1.04 (0.96 to 1.13)1.03 (0.93 to 1.13)
 Q31.01 (0.95 to 1.08)1.06 (0.98 to 1.15)0.96 (0.87 to 1.06)0.99 (0.93 to 1.06)1.04 (0.96 to 1.13)0.95 (0.86 to 1.05)
 Q41.18 (1.11 to 1.26)1.21 (1.11 to 1.31)1.11 (1.00 to 1.22)1.18 (1.10 to 1.26)1.21 (1.11 to 1.32)1.11 (0.99 to 1.23)
 Q51.28 (1.20 to 1.35)1.35 (1.26 to 1.46)1.10 (1.00 to 1.21)1.26 (1.18 to 1.35)1.36 (1.25 to 1.48)1.11 (1.00 to 1.24)
Alcohol-focused outlet density Q‡
 Q11.00 (Referent)1.00 (Referent)1.00 (Referent)1.00 (Referent)1.00 (Referent)1.00 (Referent)
 Q20.99 (0.93 to 1.05)0.93 (0.86 to 1.01)0.99 (0.89 to 1.09)0.85 (0.79 to 0.92)0.82 (0.74 to 0.90)0.91 (0.80 to 1.02)
 Q31.08 (1.01 to 1.15)1.03 (0.95 to 1.11)1.06 (0.96 to 1.17)0.95 (0.88 to 1.03)0.93 (0.85 to 1.02)0.98 (0.88 to 1.10)
 Q41.12 (1.05 to 1.20)1.08 (1.00 to 1.17)1.08 (0.98 to 1.20)1.04 (0.96 to 1.12)1.03 (0.94 to 1.13)1.05 (0.93 to 1.18)
 Q51.20 (1.12 to 1.27)1.17 (1.08 to 1.26)1.08 (0.98 to 1.20)1.06 (0.98 to 1.14)1.06 (0.96 to 1.17)1.02 (0.90 to 1.15)
  • *All models were adjusted for the material deprivation Q and crime Q, while the analysis of CCPs was also adjusted for the number of banks.

  • †Includes all on-premise alcohol licensed facilities, as well as liquor and beer stores.

  • ‡ Restricted to specific on-premise alcohol licensed facilities (see online supplementary table 2), as well as liquor and beer stores.

  • CCP, cheque cashing place; Q, quintile.