Table 1

Sample characteristics of study respondents

Sociodemographic featuresOverall sample, n=436Urban sites, n=215Rural sites, n=221p Values
Gender (%)
Age (years)
 Median (IQR)†45 (29–55)45 (28–57)45 (29–52)
Household size (number of persons)
Median (IQR)†5 (4–7)5 (3–6)5 (4–7)**
Occupation (%)***‡
 Unskilled labour7.38.46.3
 Skilled labour4.66.52.7
 Service (public)
 Service (private)9.612.17.2
Highest education level attained (%)***‡
 No education21.611.631.2***
 Less than primary7.37.96.8
 Primary school38.333.543.0*
 Secondary school12.814.910.9
 Higher secondary school10.314.06.8*
 Diploma/professional course1.62.30.9
Years of school attended (years)
 Median (IQR)†7 (2–11)10 (5–13)5 (0–10)***
Marital status***‡
Social category***‡
 Scheduled caste or tribe25.038.112.2***
 Other backward class8.310.26.3
 Open/general category59.641.477.4***
 Vimukta jati nomadic tribes3.42.84.1
Monthly household income (Indian Rupees)
 Median (IQR)†10 000 (5000–17 500)11 000 (6000–22 500)7250 (3375–13 250)***
 Unable to provide a response (%)‡21.613.529.4***
Household income reliability (%)‡
 Reliable and dependable49.160.937.6***
 Not reliable and dependable44.535.353.4***
 No response6.43.79.0*
  • *p≤0.05, **p≤0.01, ***p≤0.001.

  • †Wilcoxon test.

  • ‡Pearson χ2 or Fisher’s exact test.