Table 1

Summary of included comparative studies (N=57)

Author, yearStudy designQualityNCountryOutcomes (assessment type)
Adinma, 199719Cross-sectionalLow256NigeriaObstetric (self-report)
Almroth, 2005a20Case–controlHigh279SudanInfertility (clinical)
Almroth, 2005b21Cross-sectionalHigh255SudanGenitourinary (clinical)
Alsibiani, 201022Cross-sectionalModerate260Saudi ArabiaSexual (self-report)
Balk, 200023Based on the Sudan DHS 1990Moderate5856SudanInfertility (self-report)
Berardi, 198524ProspectiveLow852FranceObstetric (clinical)
Bohoussou, 198625Cross-sectionalLow4935Ivory CoastObstetric (unclear)
Brewer, 200726Based on the Kenya DHS 2003High539KenyaHIV/STIs (clinical)
Browning, 2010 27Retrospective cohortModerate492EthiopiaGenitourinary, obstetric (clinical)
Chibber, 201128ProspectiveLow4800UnclearObstetric (clinical)
De Silva, 198929ProspectiveLow2157Saudi ArabiaGenitourinary, obstetric (clinical)
El Dareer, 198330Cross-sectionalLow3210SudanImmediate, genitourinary (self-report)
el Defrawi, 200131Cross-sectionalModerate250EgyptGenitourinary, sexual (self-report)
Elmusharaf, 200632Case–controlHigh222SudanHIV/STIs (clinical)
Elnashar, 200733Cross-sectionalLow264EgyptGenitourinary, sexual, obstetric, (self-report)
Essén, 200536Registry studyModerate2554SwedenObstetric (clinical)
Fillo, 200737Based on the Burkina Faso DHS 2003Moderate12 477Burkina FasoGenitourinary (unclear)
Hakim, 200138Unclear if prospective or retrospectiveLow1481EthiopiaObstetric (clinical)
Holmgren, 200339Cross-sectionalModerate857Guinea-BissauHIV/STIs (clinical)
Inhorn, 199340Case–controlHigh190EgyptInfertility (clinical)
Jackson, 200541Cross-sectionalLow?GhanaInfertility (self-report)
Johnson 200542Registry studyLow5416USAObstetric (clinical)
Jones, 1999-I43Cross-sectionalLow1920Burkina FasoGenitourinary (clinical), obstetric (self-report)
Jones, 1999-II 43ProspectiveModerate5337MaliGenitourinary, obstetric (clinical)
Kanki, 199244Cross-sectionalModerate1710SenegalHIV/STIs (clinical)
Kaplan, 201145Cross-sectionalModerate871GambiaImmediate (self-report), genitourinary (clinical)
Klouman, 200546Cross-sectionalModerate396TanzaniaGenitourinary, HIV/STIs, infertility (clinical)
Larsen, 200247Based on the Sudan DHS 1990Moderate5849SudanInfertility (self-report)
Larsen 200248Cross-sectionalLow1836NigeriaObstetric (self-report)
Larsen, 2000-I49Based on the CAR DHS 1995Moderate4388Central African RepublicInfertility (self-report)
Larsen, 2000-II49Based on the Ivory Coast DHS 1995Moderate5930Ivory CoastInfertility (self-report)
Larsen, 2000-III49Based on the Tanzania DHS 1997Moderate6043TanzaniaInfertility (self-report)
Larsen, 198950Cross-sectionalLow2183SudanInfertility (self-report)
Lupo, 199951Registry studyLow114USAObstetric (unclear)
Maslovskaya, 200952Based on the Kenya DHS 2003High3114KenyaHIV/STIs (clinical)
Millogo-Traore, 200753ProspectiveLow454Burkina FasoObstetric (clinical)
Morison, 200154Cross-sectionalHigh1157GambiaGenitourinary, sexual, HIV/STIs, infertility (clinical)
Msuya, 200255Cross-sectionalHigh379TanzaniaGenitourinary, HIV/STIs (clinical)
Ndiaye, 201056Cross-sectionalLow354Burkina FasoObstetric (clinical)
NSEO, 200234Cross-sectionalLow7765EritreaSexual, obstetric (self-report)
NSO, 199535Cross-sectionalLow4775EritreaSexual, obstetric (self-report)
Nwajei, 200357Cross-sectionalLow400NigeriaGenitourinary (self-report)
Odoi, 199758Cross-sectionalLow195GhanaSexual (self-report)
Oduro, 200659Registry studyHigh5071GhanaObstetric (clinical)
Okonofua, 200260Cross-sectionalModerate1836NigeriaGenitourinary, sexual (clinical/self-report)
Orji, 200661Cross-sectionalLow500NigeriaObstetric (self-report)
Pépin, 200662Cross-sectionalModerate1026Guinea-BissauHIV (clinical)
Pépin, 199163Cross-sectionalLow345GambiaHIV (clinical)
Rushwan, 198364Cross-sectionalLow2502SudanImmediate, genitourinary, sexual, infertility (self-report)
Shandall, 196765Cross-sectionalLow4487SudanImmediate, genitourinary (clinical/self-report)
Slanger, 200266Cross-sectionalModerate1107NigeriaObstetric (self-report)
Small, 200867Registry studyLow2 179 322MultipleObstetric (clinical)
Vangen, 200268Registry studyLow703 925NorwayObstetric (clinical)
WHO study group, 200669ProspectiveHigh28 393MultipleObstetric (clinical)
Wuest, 200970ProspectiveLow232SwitzerlandObstetric (clinical)
Yount, 200771Based on the Kenya DHS 2003Moderate3167KenyaHIV/STIs (clinical), obstetric (self-report)
Yount, 200672Cross-sectionalLow1700EgyptInfertility, obstetric (self-report)
  • Two studies are presented in Jones 1999 43 (Jones 1999-I is from Mali, and Jones 1999-II is from Burkina Faso); three studies are presented in Larsen 2000 49 (Larsen 2000-I is from the Central African Republic, Larsen 2000-II is from the Ivory Coast, and Larsen 2000-III is from Tanzania).

  • CAR, Central African Republic; DHS, Demographic and Health Survey; Quality, Methodological study quality at study level; STIs, sexually transmitted infections.