Table 3

Multivariate analysis of determinants of nutritional status of children in Ghana, aged 6–36 months

VariablesModel (A)Model (B)Model (C)Model (D)
Coefficientst-StatisticsCoefficientst-StatisticsCoefficientst-StatisticsCoefficientst-Statistics
Maternal and child's basic factors
Child's sex
 Male (ref)
 Female−0.12 (0.10)*−1.18−0.12 (0.10)−1.13−0.08 (0.10)−0.77−0.15 (0.11)−1.38
Child's age−0.24 (0.04)−6.70†−0.24 (0.04)−6.48†−0.21 (0.04)−5.66†−0.25 (0.04)−6.49†
Child's age square0.005 (0.001)5.67†0.005 (0.001)5.47†0.004 (0.001)4.66†0.005 (0.001)5.02†
Maternal age0.02 (0.01)2.88†0.02 (0.01)2.93†0.01 (0.01)0.950.02 (0.01)1.52
Number of children U5−0.13 (0.06)2.37†−0.10 (0.06)1.79−0.11 (0.06)−1.89−0.17 (0.08)−2.13†
Contextual factors
Place of residence
 Urban (ref)
 Rural0.30 (0.12)2.34†−0.09 (0.16)−0.54−0.08 (0.16)−0.49
Religion
 Christian (ref)
 Other religions0.21 (0.11)1.850.17 (0.12)1.360.10 (0.13)0.81
Resources
Maternal resources
 Height1.84 (0.95)1.941.39 (0.99)1.40
 Weight0.02 (0.01)2.34†0.01 (0.01)1.75
 Anaemia level
  No anaemia (ref)
  Some anaemia−0.02 (−0.11)−0.22−0.09 (0.12)−0.73
 Parity0.01 (0.04)0.300.01 (0.05)0.21
 Education and occupation
  Secondary+ (ref)
  Education (if primary; 0.1)0.14 (0.14)1.040.01 (0.15)0.07
  Education (if no education; 0.1)−0.04 (0.16)−0.25−0.08 (0.17)−0.45
  White collar (ref)
  Agricultural/labour−0.06 (0.12)−0.49−0.11 (0.14)−0.83
 Empowerment
  Participation in decision-making
   High participation (ref)
   Low participation0.14 (0.11)1.270.06 (0.12)0.54
  Husband justified in beating wife
   Greater sense of empowerment (ref)
   Less sense of empowerment−0.002 (0.12)−0.020.08 (0.12)0.66
  Wife justified in refusing sex
   More empowered (ref)
   Less empowered0.11 (0.16)0.720.10 (0.16)0.62
Household resources
 Wealth index
  Wealth index (if richest; 0.0; ref)
  Wealth index (if richer; 0.1)0.43 (0.22)1.930.35 (0.23)1.51
  Wealth index (if middle; 0.1)0.59 (0.24)2.45†0.53 (0.25)2.08†
  Wealth index (if poor; 0.1)0.79 (0.28)2.86†0.68 (0.26)2.57†
  Wealth index (if poorest; 0.1)0.67 (0.29)2.91†0.60 (0.29)2.08†
 Water and sanitation
  Source of drinking water
   Improved (ref)
   Unimproved0.06 (0.13)0.460.13 (0.13)0.98
 Type of toilet facilities
  Improved (ref)
  Unimproved−0.03 (0.12)−0.220.01 (0.11)0.12
 Disposal of the youngest child's stool
  Good disposal practice (ref)
  Bad disposal practice−0.06 (0.12)−0.540.09 (0.12)0.71
Childcare practices
 Care practices score0.17 (0.08)2.25†
R20.090.100.140.17
F19.5814.866.466.56
N1187118711871187
  • *SEs (in parentheses).

  • †Statistically significant at p<0.05. The coefficients are standardised.

  • U5, under 5 years.