Table 1

Subgroup analyses to investigate differences between studies included in meta-analysis (highest vs lowest category)

VariablesFruit onlyVegetables onlyFruit and vegetablesGreen leafy vegetables
NPooled RR (95% CI)p ValueNPooled RR (95% CI)p ValueNPooled RR (95% CI)p ValueNPooled RR (95% CI)p Value
Location
 Non-Asia80.93 (0.87 to 1.00)0.04960.96 (0.87 to 1.06)0.39770.94 (0.84 to 1.04)0.22340.89 (0.81 to 0.97)0.012
 Asia30.96 (0.82 to 1.12)0.58430.77 (0.60 to 0.98)0.03220.97 (0.75 to 1.25)0.82730.80 (0.69 to 0.93)0.004
Quality
 High (≥4)40.92 (0.86 to 1.00)0.04520.83 (0.52 to 1.33)0.44811.04 (0.87 to 1.25)0.67120.86 (0.76 to 0.98)0.024
 Low (<4)70.94 (0.85 to 1.04)0.24070.93 (0.84 to 1.02)0.10980.93 (0.84 to 1.02)0.13850.86 (0.77 to 0.97)0.010
Duration of follow-up (years)
 ≥1050.90 (0.83 to 0.97)0.00640.91 (0.79 to 1.05)0.19050.89 (0.77 to 1.02)0.09830.85 (0.75 to 0.97)0.014
 <1060.98 (0.90 to 1.07)0.65450.89 (0.72 to 1.10)0.29641.03 (0.91 to 1.16)0.67440.87 (0.78 to 0.97)0.013
Sex
 M and F50.88 (0.79 to 0.98)0.02250.89 (0.81 to 0.97)0.01060.87 (0.77 to 0.98)0.02640.80 (0.69 to 0.92)0.002
 F only50.95 (0.88 to 1.02)0.16840.94 (0.77 to 1.15)0.54431.02 (0.94 to 1.11)0.61030.89 (0.81 to 0.98)0.014
 M only10.99 (0.82 to 1.19)0.916000
Fractions of distribution
 Thirds10.91 (0.71 to 1.16)0.45110.94 (0.84 to 1.05)0.27710.90 (0.80 to 1.01)0.07610.84 (0.65 to 1.08)0.170
 Quarters30.92 (0.81 to 1.04)0.19330.77 (0.60 to 0.98)0.03220.97 (0.75 to 1.25)0.82730.80 (0.69 to 0.93)0.004
 Fifths70.94 (0.87 to 1.02)0.14450.96 (0.84 to 1.09)0.49960.94 (0.82 to 1.08)0.38530.89 (0.78 to 1.01)0.062
No of participants
 ≥50 00030.91 (0.84 to 0.99)0.03220.83 (0.52 to 1.33)0.44811.01 (0.91 to 1.13)0.85820.86 (0.76 to 0.98)0.024
 <50 00080.95 (0.87 to 1.04)0.23770.93 (0.84 to 1.02)0.10980.92 (0.83 to 1.03)0.14650.86 (0.77 to 0.97)0.010
No of cases
 ≥100050.95 (0.88 to 1.03)0.23341.01 (0.94 to 1.08)0.81060.96 (0.86 to 1.07)0.45630.91 (0.84 to 0.98)0.018
 <100060.91 (0.82 to 1.00)0.04250.75 (0.66 to 0.85)0.00030.87 (0.73 to 1.04)0.11940.78 (0.68 to 0.89)0.000
  • F, female; M, male; RR, relative risk.