Table 3

Adjusted ORs of major depression during pregnancy associated with adverse perinatal outcomes among singleton births in Finland from 2002 to 2010

Perinatal outcomeModel 1 adjusted by major depression during pregnancyModel 2 adjusted by model 1+age and parityModel 3 adjusted by model 2+SESModel 4 adjusted by model 2+smokingModel 5 adjusted by model 2+SES and smoking
OR (95% CI)OR (95% CI)OR (95% CI)OR (95% CI)OR (95% CI)
Admission to a NICU1.79 (1.65 to 1.95)1.78 (1.64 to 1.94)1.78 (1.64 to 1.93)1.68 (1.55 to 1.83)1.69 (1.55 to 1.84)
Stillbirth1.97 (1.33 to 2.93)2.01 (1.35 to 2.99)1.86 (1.25 to 2.76)1.88 (1.27 to 2.80)1.77 (1.19 to 2.63)
Early neonatal death1.08 (0.49 to 2.42)1.13 (0.50 to 2.51)
Preterm birth (<37 weeks)1.57 (1.39 to 1.77)1.57 (1.39 to 1.77)1.55 (1.37 to 1.75)1.49 (1.32 to 1.68)1.48 (1.31 to 167)
LBW (<2500 g)1.56 (1.36 to 1.79)1.55 (1.35 to 1.79)1.53 (1.33 to 1.76)1.37 (1.19 to 1.58)1.36 (1.18 to 1.56)
SGA (<−2 SD below mean birth weight)1.46 (1.27 to 1.67)1.41 (1.23 to 1.62)1.39 (1.21 to 1.59)1.18 (1.03 to 1.36)1.17 (1.02 to 1.35)
Apgar scores (<7 at 5 min)*2.13 (1.79 to 2.54)2.11 (1.77 to 2.51)2.07 (1.74 to 2.47)2.05 (1.72 to 2.45)2.02 (1.70 to 2.41)
Fetal venous pH <7.15 at birth*,†1.37 (1.06 to 1.76)1.32 (1.03 to 1.71)1.33 (1.03 to 1.72)1.35 (1.05 to 1.74)1.36 (1.06 to 1.76)
Major congenital anomaly1.47 (1.29 to 1.67)1.48 (1.29 to 1.69)1.47 (1.29 to 1.68)1.44 (1.26 to 1.65)1.44 (1.26 to 1.64)
  • *Available since 2004.

  • †Gathered selectively by indication.

  • LBW, low birth weight; NICU, neonatal intensive care unit; SES, socioeconomic status; SGA, small-for-gestational age.