Table 1

Delivery characteristics and reproductive risk factors among women with singleton pregnancies with and without major depression during pregnancy, and with and without a history of depression prior to pregnancy from 2002 to 2010 in Finland

CharacteristicNo major depression during pregnancy, n=493 037 (96.3%)No major depression during pregnancy, n=14 781 (2.9%)Major depression during pregnancy, n=2189 (0.4%)Major depression during pregnancy, n=1931 (0.4%)p Value*
A history of depression prior to pregnancyNoYesNoYes
Nulliparous, %≤0.001
Mean maternal age, years (SD)29.6 (5.4)27.6 (6.0)28.4 (6.2)28.7 (6.6)≤0.001
Mean gestational age, week (SD)39.8 (1.8)39.7 (1.9)39.4 (2.0)39.5 (2.0)≤0.001
Mode of delivery, %≤0.001
 Vaginal spontaneous75.874.872.670.4
 Vacuum assistance7.
 Caesarean section15.917.119.621.5
Mean birth weight, g (SD)3531.4 (550)3479.0 (568)3453.1 (580)3456.3 (608)≤0.001
Male fetal sex, %
Major congenital anomalies, %≤0.001
Smoking status, %
 Quit smoking during first trimester3.
 Smoking after first trimester10.526.725.129.3
 Missing information2.
Married or living with a partner, %93.586.383.183.0≤0.001
Socioeconomic status, %
 Upper white-collar worker8.≤0.001
 Lower white-collar worker34.525.827.925.5
 Blue-collar worker14.216.014.915.3
 Missing information17.223.621.325.3
Prior miscarriages, %20.723.623.323.2≤0.001
Prior terminations, %12.222.419.821.7≤0.001
In vitro fertilisation, %≤0.001
Anaemia, ≤100 g/L, %≤0.001
Placenta praevia, %
Placental abruption %
Preeclampsia, %
Gestational diabetes, %11.213.414.517.6≤0.001
Pre-existing diabetes, %8.410.911.613.6≤0.001
Prior caesarean section, %10.610.510.310.20.90
Fear of childbirth, %4.611.415.017.5≤0.001
  • *The χ2 or Kruskal–Wallis test.

  • †‘Others’ comprise entrepreneurs, students, retired women, unemployed women, housewives and all unclassifiable cases.