Table 4

Multiple linear regression coefficients for adult blood pressure (mm Hg) per 1 SD increase in birth weight and conditional relative weight (CRW) from birth to adulthood

 Simple models*Adjusted models†Combined model 1‡Combined model 2§
β (95% CI)p Valueβ (95% CI)p ValueΒ (95% CI)p Valueβ (95% CI)p Value
Systolic blood pressure
 Birth weight (≤3.1 kg)−1.73 (−3.17 to −0.30)0.018−1.52 (−2.95 to −0.09)0.037−1.52 (−2.91 to −0.14)0.031
 Birth weight (>3.1 kg)1.07 (−0.55 to 2.68)0.1940.69 (−0.86 to 2.23)0.3811.27 (−0.23 to 2.76)0.096
 Conditional relative weight¶4.18 (3.45 to 4.90)<0.0014.77 (3.69 to 5.86)<0.0013.74 (2.78 to 4.70)<0.0014.69 (3.61 to 5.77)<0.001
Diastolic blood presssure 
 Birth weight (≤3.1 kg)−1.12 (−2.19 to −0.06)0.038−0.90 (−1.97 to 0.17)0.038−0.97 (−2.00 to 0.06)0.066
 Birth weight (>3.1 kg)0.75 (−0.46 to 1.97)0.2240.66 (−0.50 to 1.82)0.2610.88 (−0.26 to 2.02)0.131
 Conditional relative weight¶2.87 (2.33 to 3.42)<0.0013.11 (2.29 to 3.94)<0.0012.62 (1.91 to 3.34)<0.0013.18 (2.35 to 4.00)<0.001
  • *Simple models: blood pressure was regressed on birthweight z-scores and conditional relative weight z-scores, respectively, without adjustment for covariates.

  • †Adjusted models: blood pressure was regressed on birthweight z-scores and conditional relative weight z-scores, respectively, adjusted for age, height and waist circumference.

  • ‡Combined model 1: included birthweight z-scores and conditional relative weight z-scores into one regression model in birth weight ≤3.1 kg group.

  • §Combined model 2: included birthweight z-scores and conditional relative weight z-scores into one regression model in birth weight >3.1 kg group.

  • Conditional relative weight (z-score): calculated as a residual of current weight regressed on birth weight. CRW=exact adult weight−expected adult weight; expected adult weight=a+b×birth weight.