Table 1

Example vignettes

FactorLevels with coding
A. Family member's sex0: Female
1: Male
B. Relation to patient0: Parent to patient
1: Child of patient
C. Situation witnessed0: No, patient and HCP are alone
1: Yes, event is witnessed by other HPC
D. Staff occupation0: Nurse
1: Doctor
E. Patient's behaviour0: Inquiring
1: Challenging
F. Attribution of error0: True, HCP did make an error
1: False, HCP did not make an error
G. Staff response0: Encouraging
1: Discouraging
Error scenario 1, vignette A0B0C1D1E0F0G1
Mrs Smith is mother to a 5-year-old boy. Mrs Smith's son has been in hospital for a few days. He had a complicated appendectomy. Mrs Smith is present at hospital daily to watch after her son. During the morning several doctors and nurses enter the room. A doctor inspects the wound dressing of Mrs Smith’s son. Mrs Smith looks anxious and asks: excuse me, shouldn't you need to wash your hands? As it is a very busy morning the doctor had in fact forgot to wash his hands. The doctor rolls his eyes and disinfects his hands using alcohol gel.
Error scenario 2, vignette A1B0C0D1E1F0G0
Mr Brown is father to a 5-year-old boy. Mr Brown's son has been in hospital for a number of days. He is suffering from severe heart problems. Mr Brown is present at hospital daily to watch after his son. His son has been prescribed several drugs. Early this morning, the nurse gave the medication to Mr Brown and instructed him that his son should take them with breakfast. Later on in the morning a doctor enters the room. The doctor asks Mr Brown’s son how he is doing. Mr Brown looks angry and states: Can you please check these red tablets. I do not think these are meant to be for my son! The doctor had been very busy when writing prescriptions yesterday and had been interrupted several times. The doctor checks the medication against the chart and says: ‘oh yes it is very good that you ask. I am really sorry it seems that your son indeed has been given the wrong medication. Your prescription should not have changed.
  • Letters in table 6 indicate factors and numbers in subscripts represent the levels.