Table 2

Confirmatory factor analysis results—domains of disability in the HIV Disability Questionnaire (HDQ; n=361)

Domain of disability (latent variables)Item noHDQ items (indicator variables)Standardised factor loadings95% CI
Physical symptoms and impairments (20 items)1I feel too tired to do my usual activities (loss of energy)0.640.59 to 0.70
2I have diarrhoea0.340.25 to 0.42
3I feel nauseous0.660.60 to 0.71
4I have headaches0.600.54 to 0.67
5I have numbness or tingling in my hands0.600.54 to 0.67
6I have numbness or tingling in my feet0.580.52 to 0.64
7I have aches or pains0.680.64 to 0.73
8I have trouble swallowing food0.520.44 to 0.59
9I have less desire to have sex (decreased libido)0.460.39 to 0.53
10I have shortness of breath0.590.53 to 0.66
11I have fever, chills or sweats0.570.50 to 0.64
12I feel weakness in my muscles0.730.69 to 0.78
13I have muscle cramps0.670.62 to 0.72
14I have stomach cramps0.630.57 to 0.69
15I am losing weight0.420.34 to 0.50
16I lack an appetite for food0.460.39 to 0.53
17I have trouble sleeping0.500.43 to 0.57
18I have problems with my vision0.570.50 to 0.64
19I have problems with my hearing0.420.34 to 0.50
20I feel dizzy0.700.65 to 0.76
Cognitive symptoms and impairments (3 items)21I have trouble remembering things like appointments and when to take my medication0.720.67 to 0.78
22I have trouble thinking clearly0.900.87 to 0.92
23I have trouble concentrating0.870.84 to 0.90
Mental health symptoms and impairments (11items)24I feel anxious0.670.62 to 0.71
25I feel sad, down or depressed0.770.73 to 0.80
26I am afraid for my future0.770.74 to 0.81
27I lack confidence around others0.760.72 to 0.81
28I am uncomfortable with how my body looks0.620.57 to 0.67
29I feel isolated even when I am around others. In other words, I feel that I do not belong0.810.78 to 0.84
30I feel embarrassed around others0.820.79 to 0.85
31I feel guilty0.760.72 to 0.81
32I feel lonely0.750.71 to 0.79
33I feel discouraged about my future life options0.810.78 to 0.84
34I feel ‘shut out’ by my friends or family0.660.60 to 0.72
Uncertainty or worry about the future (14 items)35I worry about my future health living with HIV0.840.81 to 0.87
36I worry about my lab test results such as my CD4 count and viral load0.760.72 to 0.80
37I worry about having a serious illness.0.860.84 to 0.88
38I worry about what the outcome of my next episode of illness might be0.870.85 to 0.89
39I worry about the side effects of HIV treatments0.700.66 to 0.75
40I worry about my income or financial security living with HIV0.680.64 to 0.72
41I worry what might happen to my family and friends if I have an episode of illness0.680.63 to 0.73
42I worry about being able to remain in the workforce or return to the workforce0.560.50 to 0.62
43I worry about dying0.640.58 to 0.70
44I worry about my bodily appearance0.670.62 to 0.71
45I worry about the legal issues of telling others about my HIV status0.580.52 to 0.63
46I worry about what others would think of me if they knew I was HIV positive0.590.54 to 0.64
47I worry about transmitting HIV to others0.390.31 to 0.46
48I have put certain life decisions on hold (such as buying a house, returning to work or school, or starting a family) because of my uncertainty living with HIV0.580.53 to 0.64
Difficulties with day-to-day activities (9 items)49I am unsteady on my feet0.690.64 to 0.74
50I have trouble walking0.750.70 to 0.79
51I have trouble climbing stairs0.730.69 to 0.77
52I have trouble with daily activities such as eating, bathing, grooming, or dressing0.710.66 to 0.77
53I have trouble doing household chores such as cleaning, doing dishes, laundry, and cooking0.780.74 to 0.82
54I have trouble taking part in leisure or recreation, such as exercise or dancing0.780.74 to 0.82
55I have trouble getting out to do errands such as grocery shopping, banking, or doctor's appointments0.850.82 to 0.88
56I have trouble keeping track of my finances0.530.47 to 0.60
57I have trouble getting around, such as driving or taking public transportation0.740.68 to 0.79
Challenges to social inclusion (12 items)58I find it hard to meet the needs of those I care for (such as children, parents, grandparents, partners, or pets)0.590.52 to 0.66
59I find it hard to fulfil my role as a family or community member living with HIV0.720.68 to 0.76
60I feel cut off from my friends, networks, ethnic or religious communities0.710.66 to 0.76
61My illness prevents me from doing volunteer or paid work or going to school0.600.54 to 0.66
62I feel that my work performance is limited because of my illness0.640.59 to 0.70
63I struggle to maintain safe and stable housing living with HIV0.480.41 to 0.56
64I find it hard to talk with others about my illness, even my family and friends0.560.51 to 0.62
65I find it hard to ask others for help when I go through an episode of illness0.670.62 to 0.72
66I find it hard to start new friendships living with HIV0.700.66 to 0.75
67I find it hard to start new, intimate, sexual relationships living with HIV0.540.48 to 0.60
68I tend to isolate myself from others because I am HIV positive0.760.72 to 0.80
69I find it hard to take part in leisure or recreational things like going to the movies, out to dinner, or on vacation because I cannot afford it0.480.41 to 0.55
  • Confirmatory Factor Analysis—Goodness of Fit Statistics.

  • χ2=3020.981 (p value <0.0001).

  • Degrees of freedom (df)=2262.

  • Comparative Fit Index (CFI)=0.812 (ideal is ≥0.95).

  • Tucker-Lewis Index (TLI)=0.805 (ideal is ≥0.95).

  • Root Mean Square Error of Approximation (RMSEA)=0.030 (good fit indicated by <0.05).

  • Results

  • All standardised factor loadings were statistically significant (p<0.0001).

  • All factor loadings were >0.30 which indicate the HDQ items ‘load’ on a given domain of disability.