Table 1

Taxonomy of perceived events that could lead to subjective harm in primary care, as found in three qualitative studies23–25

DomainPatient contributionStaff/system contribution
Access breakdown23Untimely attendance25
Underattendance25
Culture given priority over health needs25
Telephone access23
Gatekeeping23 24
‘In system access’23 24
Access to specialist care23 24
Communication breakdown23Inarticulateness25
Low literacy25
Taciturnity25
Comprehension errors25
Lack of confidence25
Artfulness25
Memory errors25
Improper appointment scheduling23
Failure to respond to reports of adverse drug reactions or painful symptoms24
Errors of coordination/management continuity24Comprehension errors25
Memory errors25
Knowledge errors25
Administrative errors in recording, posting, updating23
Transfer of records to and from practice23 24
Wrong chart used for patient23
Relationship breakdown23Selfishness25
Perception of not being taken seriously24
Inadequate time with clinician23
Intermediary necessary23
Care not by usual clinician23
Disrespect or insensitivity23
Technical errors23Low literacy25
Sharing of medication25
Duration errors in medicine taking25
Errors in self-management25
Failure to take treatment25
Incomplete medical history23
Deficient/incomplete examination or investigation23
Wrong, incomplete or delayed diagnosis23 24
Prescribing errors23
Inadequate patient education re: diagnosis or treatment23