Table 4

Predictor variables in the multivariable logistic regression model estimating the probability of GI symptoms in female runners during their run

VariableGI symptoms
OR (95% CI)p-Value
Age (year)*0.98 (0.96 to 1.00)0.03
BMI (per 1 unit)*1.12 (1.03 to 1.22)0.00
Timing of prerunning meal (min)1.00 (1.00 to 1.00)0.59
Timing of prerunning snack (min)1.00 (1.00 to 1.00)0.75
Amount drink (mL)
 1–4 h before running*1.00 (1.00 to 1.00)0.20
 Within 1 h before running1.00 (1.00 to 1.00)1.00
 During running1.00 (0.99 to 1.00)0.23
Running on an empty stomach (n)*0.59 (0.25 to 1.35)0.21
Sport drink (n)
1–4 h before running
 No drink1
 Hypotonic0.60 (0.34 to 1.07)0.08
 Isotonic and hypertonic0.41 (0.15 to 1.11)0.08
Sport drink (n)
Within 1 h before running
 No drink1
 Hypotonic0.75 (0.43 to 1.31)0.31
 Isotonic and hypertonic1.54 (0.46 to 5.14)0.48
Sport drink (n)
During running
 No drink1
 Hypotonic1.32 (0.46 to 3.74)0.61
 Isotonic and hypertonic10.47 (1.37 to 80.34)0.02
Prevalence of total GI symptoms in general (n)*4.97 (3.15 to 7.84)0.00
Running experience (n)*
 <3 months1.62 (0.74 to 3.58)0.23
 3–12 months3.09 (1.66 to 5.74)0.00
 >12 months1
Kilometres run in an average week (n)
 <10 km a week1.37 (0.42 to 4.52)0.60
 10–20 km a week1.26 (0.38 to 4.10)0.71
 20–30 km a week1.24 (0.36 to 4.25)0.73
 >30 km a week0
Aim for ‘2013 Marikenloop’ (n)
 5 km1
 10 km1.30 (0.80 to 2.11)0.30
  • *p<0.05 in bivariate analyse.

  • BMI, body mass index; GI, gastrointestinal.