Table 3

Comparisons between female runners with or without GI symptoms regarding nutritional and activity features

Variable≥1 GI symptoms during their last runTest statisticp Value
Yes n=210*No n=223*
Age (year)36.8±11.540.4±11.23.32†0.00
BMI23.6±3.022.7±2.7−3.13†0.00
Timing of prerunning meal (min)‡104.6±69.8102.4±70.3−1.32†0.19
Timing of prerunning snack (min)§89.2±65.281.6±60.6−0.48†0.63
Amount drink (mL)
 1–4 h before running304.0±263.7255.0±200.1−2.19†0.03
 Within 1 h before running156.5±118.8146.6±110.5−0.90†0.37
 During running27.5±83.028.7±91.60.15†0.89
Running on an empty stomach (n)15 (7%)31 (14%)5.20¶0.02
Sport drink (n)
1–4 h before running
 No drink63 (30%)66 (30%)0.03¶0.98
 Hypotonic132 (63%)140 (63%)
 Isotonic and hypertonic15 (7%)17 (8%)
Sport drink (n)
Within 1 h before running
 No drink75 (36%)85 (38%)2.63¶0.27
 Hypotonic123 (59%)132 (59%)
 Isotonic and hypertonic12 (6%)6 (3%)
Sport drink (n)
During running
 No drink188 (90%)201 (90%)2.50**0.29
 Hypotonic16 (8%)20 (9%)
 Isotonic and hypertonic6 (3%)2 (1%)
Prevalence of total GI symptoms in general (n)123 (59%)48 (22%)62.12¶0.00
Prevalence of upper GI symptoms in general (n)52 (25%)15 (7%)26.90¶0.00
Prevalence of lower GI symptoms in general (n)109 (52%)46 (21%)46.04¶0.00
Running experience (n)
 <3 months26 (12%)20 (9%)21.43¶0.00
 3–12 months57 (27%)25 (11%)
 >12 months127 (61%)178 (80%)
Kilometres ran in an average week (n)
 <10 km a week103 (49%)94 (42%)2.77¶0.43
 10–20 km a week72 (34%)82 (37%)
 20–30 km a week28 (13%)35 (16%)
 >30 km a week7 (3%)12 (5%)
Aim for ‘2013 Marikenloop’ (n)
 5 km91 (43%)98 (44%)0.02¶0.90
 10 km119 (57%)125 (56%)
  • *Data represent mean±SD or n (%).

  • †Test statistic for independent samples t-test.

  • ‡n=387.

  • §n=250.

  • ¶Test statistic for χ2 test.

  • **Test statistic for Fisher's exact test.

  • BMI, body mass index; GI, gastrointestinal.