Table 2

Baseline characteristics of female participants according to the smoking status

Non-smokersSmokersFormer smokersp Value
Sample size, n (%)276 (47.5)181 (31.2)124 (21.3)
 Age, years40.5±8.737.6±10.142.4±8.50.256
 Height, cm166.8±5.7166.3±6.0167.6±5.70.246*
 Body weight, kg65.6±11.065.3±10.468.1±12.70.610*
 BMI, kg/m223.6±3.823.6±3.424.2±4.20.637*
 WC, cm83.4±10.283.4±9.985.2±12.70.467*
 HC, cm97.2±9.596.6±8.698.1±11.40.857*
 WHR0.858±0.060.863±0.060.867±0.060.332*
 WHtR0.494±0.060.499±0.060.505±0.080.374*
Fasting glucose, mmol4.4±0.94.3±0.74.4±0.70.097*
Total cholesterol, mmol5.5±1.05.4±1.05.4±0.90.318*
HDL-C, mmol1.8±0.41.7±0.41.8±0.40.177*
LDL-C, mmol3.2±0.93.3±0.93.2±0.80.510*
Triacylglycerols, mmol1.0±0.41.1±0.61.0±0.40.448*
TC to HDL-C ratio3.1±0.83.5±1.13.2±0.80.083*
Total WCC, G/L(a,b)6.4±1.57.7±2.16.3±1.8<0.001*
Energy intake, kJ7647±17776989±18067383±19990.008†
Physical activity (%)
 Low33.326.524.20.019‡
 Medium43.560.352.6
 High23.113.223.2
Education level (%)
 Medium75.39082.3<0.001‡
 High24.71017.1
  • Values are shown as mean±SD.

  • *p Value determined by multivariate ANOVA and adjusted for age, physical activity and energy intake.

  • †p Value determined by multivariate ANOVA and adjusted for age. LSD was the post hoc procedure. (a) Statistically significant differences between non-smokers and smokers and (b) statistically significant differences between smokers and former smokers.

  • ‡p Values analysed using χ2 test.

  • BMI, body mass index; G/L, 1×109 cells/L. HC, hip circumference; HDL-C, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol; LDL-C, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol; TC, total cholesterol; WC, waist circumference; WCC, white cell count; WHR, waist-to-hip ratio; WHtR, waist-to-height ratio.