Table 1

Baseline characteristics of male participants according to the smoking status

Non-smokersSmokersFormer smokersp Value
Sample size, n (%)180 (44.4)122 (30.1)103 (25.4)
 Age, years43.0±9.538.3±10.845.9±9.20.032
 Height, cm179.8±5.9179±5.7179±7.10.560*
 Body weight, kg81.3±10.981.5±11.983.7±11.20.777*
 BMI, kg/m225.1±3.025.3 ±3.326.1±3.50.634*
 WC, cm92.2±9.592.1±10.194.6±9.40.911*
 HC, cm99.0±7.498.6±7.299.7±7.60.895*
 WHR0.931±0.070.932±0.060.950±0.080.466*
 WHtR0.524±0.060.520±0.060.540±0.060.827*
Fasting glucose, mmol4.6±0.64.5±1.04.6±0.50.217*
Total cholesterol, mmol5.6±1.05.5±1.15.6±0.90.683*
HDL-C, mmol1.4±0.31.4±0.41.5±0.30.025*
LDL-C, mmol3.6±0.93.5±0.93.6±0.80.990*
Triacylglycerols, mmol1.3±0.71.5±1.01.4±1.00.006*
TC to HDL-C ratio4.2±1.24.3±1.34.1±1.20.098*
Total WCC, G/L(a,b)6.2±1.47.1±1.96.3±1.20.009*
Energy intake, kJ9306±23349402±18659411±23550.941†
Physical activity (%)
 Low33.533.029.10.902‡
 Medium46.548.947.7
 High20.018.123.3
Education level
 Medium56.977.074.5<0.001‡
 High43.123.025.5
  • Values are shown as mean±SD.

  • *p Value determined by multivariate ANOVA and adjusted for age, physical activity and energy intake.

  • †p Value determined by multivariate ANOVA and adjusted for age. LSD was the post hoc procedure. (a) Statistically significant differences between non-smokers and smokers and (b) statistically significant differences between smokers and former smokers.

  • ‡p Values analysed using χ2 test.

  • BMI, body mass index; G/L, 1×109 cells/L. HC, hip circumference; HDL-C, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol; LDL-C, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol; WC, waist circumference; WCC, white cell count; WHR, waist-to-hip ratio; WHtR, waist-to-height ratio.