Table 5

Multilevel Poisson regression models for orthopaedic surgery for MSD: results for the main and adjusted effects of access to PCP, geographic availability of orthopaedic surgeons and need indicators, Ontario: 2007–2008

Rate ratio (95% CI)
Main effect modelsAdjusted model
Access to PCP
Quintile V (highest)0.93 (0.79 to 1.09)1.01 (0.87 to 1.18)
Quintile IV1.04 (0.89 to 1.22)0.98 (0.84 to 1.14)
Quintile III1.04 (0.89 to 1.22)1.02 (0.89 to 1.17)
Quintile II1.02 (0.87 to 1.19)0.90 (0.79 to 1.03)
Quintile I (lowest)1.001.00
Geographic availability of orthopaedic surgeons
Quintile V (highest)0.74 (0.65 to 0.84)0.91 (0.77 to 1.07)
Quintile IV0.78 (0.68 to 0.89)0.89 (0.77 to 1.04)
Quintile III1.00 (0.88 to 1.15)0.89 (0.77 to 1.03)
Quintile II1.00 (0.88 to 1.15)0.87 (0.76 to 1.01)
Quintile I (lowest)1.001.00
Office visits to orthopaedic surgeons
Quintile V (highest)1.72 (1.54 to 1.91)1.72 (1.48 to 2.01)
Quintile IV1.59 (1.43 to 1.77)1.63 (1.40 to 1.90)
Quintile III1.41 (1.27 to 1.57)1.31 (1.14 to 1.52)
Quintile II1.26 (1.13 to 1.40)1.30 (1.14 to 1.49)
Quintile I (lowest)1.001.00
SES
Quintile V (highest)0.85 (0.73 to 0.99)1.03 (0.89 to 1.20)
Quintile IV0.89 (0.77 to 1.04)1.09 (0.95 to 1.26)
Quintile III0.95 (0.81 to 1.11)0.94 (0.82 to 1.08)
Quintile II0.94 (0.81 to 1.10)1.04 (0.90 to 1.20)
Quintile I (lowest)1.001.00
Proportion of population65 years
Quintile V (highest)1.30 (1.12 to 1.51)0.98 (0.84 to 1.14)
Quintile IV1.21 (1.04 to 1.40)0.93 (0.81 to 1.08)
Quintile III1.18 (1.02 to 1.37)1.00 (0.86 to 1.15)
Quintile II1.05 (0.90 to 1.22)0.96 (0.84 to 1.10)
Quintile I (lowest)1.001.00
Proportion of rural population (%)
<150.78 (0.70 to 0.86)0.91 (0.79 to 1.06)
Intermediate (15–50)1.02 (0.91 to 1.14)1.12 (0.98 to 1.27)
Rural (≥50)1.001.00
  • PCP, primary care physicians; MSD, musculoskeletal disorders; SES, socioeconomic status.

  • Bold typeface indicates significance at p<0.05.