Table 3

Multilevel Poisson regression models for office visits to orthopaedic surgeons for MSD: results for the main and adjusted effects of access to PCP, geographic availability of orthopaedic surgeons and need indicators, Ontario: 2007–2008

Rate ratios (95% CI)
Main effect modelsAdjusted model
Access to PCP
Quintile V (highest)1.05 (0.90 to 1.21)1.26 (1.07 to 1.49)
Quintile IV1.10 (0.95 to 1.27)1.17 (1.00 to 1.38)
Quintile III1.10 (0.95 to 1.27)1.12 (0.96 to 1.31)
Quintile II1.11 (0.96 to 1.28)1.13 (0.98 to 1.30)
Quintile I (lowest)1.001.00
Geographic availability of orthopaedic surgeons
Quintile V (highest)1.14 (0.99 to 1.31)1.29 (1.08 to 1.55)
Quintile IV0.95 (0.82 to 1.09)1.00 (0.85 to 1.18)
Quintile III0.99 (0.86 to 1.14)1.09 (0.93 to 1.29)
Quintile II1.05 (0.91 to 1.21)1.10 (0.94 to 1.29)
Quintile I (lowest)1.001.00
SES
Quintile V (highest)0.96 (0.83 to 1.11)1.04 (0.88 to 1.24)
Quintile IV0.93 (0.81 to 1.07)0.98 (0.83 to 1.16)
Quintile III1.09 (0.95 to 1.26)1.04 (0.89 to 1.22)
Quintile II1.05 (0.91 to 1.20)0.98 (0.84 to 1.16)
Quintile I (lowest)1.001.00
Proportion of population65 years
Quintile V (highest)1.25 (1.09 to 1.44)1.18 (1.01 to 1.39)
Quintile IV1.22 (1.07 to 1.40)1.21 (1.04 to 1.41)
Quintile III1.24 (1.08 to 1.42)1.23 (1.06 to 1.44)
Quintile II1.06 (0.93 to 1.22)1.05 (0.90 to 1.22)
Quintile I (lowest)1.001.00
Proportion of rural population (%)
<150.89 (0.80 to 1.00)0.81 (0.68 to 0.95)
Intermediate (15–50)1.03 (0.91 to 1.15)0.96 (0.84 to 1.11)
Rural (≥50)1.001.00
  • Models included age, sex and age-sex interaction.

  • PCP, primary care physicians; MSD, musculoskeletal disorders; SES, socioeconomic status.

  • Bold typeface indicates significance at p<0.05.