Table 2

Prevalence of CVH metrics by educational level and association between health metrics and educational level

CVH metricsEducational levelORs, 95% CI, p value†
Total*LowMediumHighLow vs mediumLow vs highMedium vs high
(n=4165)
% (95% CI)
(n=1694)(n=2076)(n=395)
Smoking status, n416516942076395
 Poor (current)30.3 (28.9 to 31.7)25.3
(23.2 to 27.3)
35.3
(33.2 to 37.3)
26.1
(21.7 to 30.4)
0.87
(0.73 to 1.03)
0.116
1.33
(0.99 to 1.76)
0.051
1.57
(1.22 to 2.02)
0.001
 Intermediate (former, quit <12 months)15.7 (14.6 to 16.8)14.3
(12.6 to 15.9)
16.2
(14.6 to 17.8)
19.0
(15.1 to 22.9)
0.68
(0.55 to 0.85)
0.001
0.74
(0.53 to 1.03)
0.074
1.14
(0.84 to 1.53)
0.390
 Ideal (never or quit >12 months)54.0 (52.5 to 55.5)60.4
(58.1 to 62.8)
48.6
(46.4 to 50.7)
54.9
(50.0 to 59.8)
111
Body mass index, n403916581998383
 Poor (≥30 kg/m2)21.3 (20.0 to 22.5)25.9
(23.7 to 27.9)
17.9
(16.2 to 19.5)
19.1
(15.1 to 23.0)
1.10
(0.89 to 1.35)
0.372
0.99
(0.72 to 1.39)
0.984
1.02
(0.74 to 1.39)
0.927
 Intermediate (25–29.9 kg/m2)37.5 (35.9 to 38.9)37.3
(35.0 to 39.7)
37.2
(35.1 to 39.4)
39.4
(34.5 to 44.3)
0.90
(0.76 to 1.08)
0.263
0.92
(0.69 to 1.21)
0.536
0.99
(0.77 to 1.28)
0.966
 Ideal (<25 kg/m2)41.2
(39.7 to 42.3)
36.8
(34.4 to 39.1)
44.9
(42.7 to 47.1)
41.5
(36.6 to 46.4)
111
Physical activity level, n416516942076395
 Poor (inactive)38.7
(37.3 to 40.2)
48.9
(46.5 to 51.3)
30.6
(28.6 to 32.6)
37.7
(32.9 to 42.5)
0.96
(0.81 to 1.14)
0.655
0.69
(0.52 to 0.92)
0.010
0.74
(0.58 to 0.96)
0.021
 Intermediate (moderately inactive)20.0
(18.8 to 21.3)
15.5
(13.7 to 17.2)
23.1
(21.3 to 24.9)
23.8
(19.6 to 28.0)
0.85
(0.69 to 1.05)
0.138
0.66
(0.48 to 0.91)
0.011
0.77
(0.58 to 1.02)
0.068
 Ideal (active)41.2
(39.7 to 42.7)
35.6
(33.3 to 37.9)
46.3
(44.2 to 48.5)
38.5
(33.7 to 43.3)
111
Healthy diet score, n416516942076395
 Poor (<21)61.0
(59.5 to 62.5)
56.3
(53.9 to 56.9)
66.2
(64.1 to 68.2)
54.2
(49.2 to 59.1)
1.67
(1.14 to 2.43)
0.008
3.49
(2.10 to 5.83)
0.000
1.93
(1.19 to 3.13)
0.000
 Intermediate (21–25)34.6
(33.1 to 32.9)
38.7
(36.6 to 40.1)
30.4
(28.4 to 32.4)
39.2
(34.4 to 44.1)
1.28
(0.88 to 1.87)
0.200
1.87
(1.13 to 3.11)
0.014
1.34
(0.82 to 2.18)
0.239
 Ideal (≥26)4.4
(3.8 to 5.0)
5.1
(4.0 to 6.1)
3.4
(2.6 to 4.2)
6.6
(4.1 to 9.0)
111
Total cholesterol, n405916742003382
 Poor (>240 mg/dL)20.8
(19.6 to 22.1)
26.3
(24.2 to 28.4)
17.0
(15.3 to 18.6)
17.0
(13.2 to 20.8)
1.04
(0.85 to 1.27)
0.719
1.22
(0.87 to 1.70)
0.241
1.15
(0.84 to 1.59)
0.384
 Intermediate (200–239 mg/dL or treated to goal)33.0
(31.5 to 34.4)
35.9
(33.6 to 38.2)
30.6
(28.5 to 32.5)
33.0
(28.2 to 37.7)
0.94
(0.78 to 1.12)
0.470
0.96
(0.73 to 1.27)
0.784
1.02
(0.79 to 1.32)
0.883
 Ideal (<200 mg/dL, untreated)46.2
(44.7 to 47.7)
37.8
(35.5 to 40.1)
52.5
(50.2 to 54.6)
50.0
(44.9 to 55.0)
111
Blood pressure, n416516942076395
 Poor (SBP/DBP >140/90 mm Hg)28.3
(26.9 to 29.7)
40.7
(38.4 to 43.1)
19.6
(17.8 to 21.2)
21.3
(17.2 to 25.3)
1.24
(0.94 to 1.63)
0.131
2.36
(1.59 to 3.51)
0.000
1.73
(1.19 to 2.51)
0.004
 Intermediate (SBP 120–139 mm/DBP 80–89 mm Hg, or treated to goal)56.9
(55.4 to 58.4)
50.4
(47.9 to 52.4
62.3
(60.2 to 64.7)
57.0
(52.1 to 61.9)
0.84
(0.66 to 1.07)
0.156
1.48
(1.06 to 2.07)
0.022
1.68
(1.26 to 2.25)
0.000
 Ideal (SBP/DBP <120/80 mm Hg, untreated)14.7
(13.7 to 15.8)
8.9
(7.6 to 10.3)
18.2
(16.5 to 19.8)
21.8
(17.7 to 25.9)
111
Fasting blood glucose, n405816742002382
 Poor (>126 mg/dL)6.3
(5.6 to 7.1)
9.2
(7.8 to 10.6)
4.2
(3.3 to 5.1)
5.0
(2.8 to 7.2)
1.10
(0.80 to 1.51)
0.546
1.24
(0.73 to 2.09)
0.420
1.11
(0.65 to 1.88)
0.711
 Intermediate (100–125 mg/dL or treated to goal)17.7
(16.5 to 18.9)
21.4
(19.4 to 23.5)
15.1
(13.5 to 16.6)
15.2
(11.6 to 18.8)
1.14
(0.94 to 1.39)
0.192
1.28
(0.92 to 1.77)
0.141
1.12
(0.82 to 1.53)
0.477
 Ideal (<100 mg/dL, untreated)76.0
(74.7 to 77.3)
69.4
(67.2 to 71.6)
80.7
(78.9 to 82.4)
79.8
(75.8 to 83.9)
111
  • *Prevalences in total, low, medium and high categories are adjusted on age and sex.

  • †According to logistic regression analysis. All comparisons of low (1) versus medium education group (0) and low (1) versus high education group (0) were adjusted for age and sex. Comparisons of medium (1) versus high education group (0) were adjusted for age.

  • CVH, cardiovascular health; DBP, diastolic blood pressure; SBP, systolic blood pressure.