Table 4

Sensitivity analysis on the risk factors for failure in enhanced recovery protocol after major hepatobiliary and pancreatic surgery

Common-effect RR (95% CI)p Value
ICU admission
 None1.0000.202
 Elective0.505 (0.176 to 1.444)
Adjusted cotinine concentration (ng/mL)*1.001 (1.000 to 1.001)<0.001
ALT/GPT (IU/L)†
 Normal1.000<0.001
 High4.626 (2.097 to 10.207)
Any postoperative morbidity
 None1.0000.007
 Present on day 32.657 (1.312 to 5.379)
  • *Active smokers commonly defined as urinary cotinine concentration >50 ng/mL.21

  • †High ALT/GPT defined as more than 67 IU/L in men and more than 55 IU/L in women.

  • ALT/GPT, alanine transaminase/glutamic-pyruvic transaminase; ICU, intensive care unit; RR, relative risk.