Table 3

Risk factors for failure in enhanced recovery protocol after major hepatobiliary and pancreatic surgery using the generalised estimating equation model

Common-effect RR (95% CI)p Value
ICU admission
 Elective0.41 (0.14 to 1.20)
Smoking status
 Never-smoker/ex smoker1.000.027
 Current smoker2.21 (1.10 to 4.46)
 High3.55 (1.68 to 7.49)
Any postoperative morbidity
 Present on day 32.69 (1.30 to 5.56)
  • *High ALT/GPT defined as more than 67 IU/L in men and more than 55 IU/L in women.

  • ALT/GPT, alanine transaminase/glutamic-pyruvic transaminase; ICU, intensive care unit; RR, relative risk.