Table 2

Associations between active jobs (high job demands/high control) and passive jobs (low job control/low job demands), high strain (high job demands/low job control) and sleep disturbances and the risk of experiencing at least one episode of troublesome neck/shoulder/arm pain

ExposureNumber of experienced cases (total)Crude OR
(95% CI)
p ValueAdjusted OR
(95% CI)
p Value
Low strain (reference)1219 (5358)11
Active jobs257 (1003)1.2 (1.0 to 1.4)0.041.3* (1.1 to 1.5)0.01
Passive jobs145 (518)1.3 (1.1 to 1.6)<0.0011.2* (0.9 to 1.4)ns
High strain38 (100)2.0 (1.3 to 3.0)<0.011.5* (1.0 to 2.4)ns
No sleep disturbance (reference)1035 (4886)11
Mild sleep disturbance547 (1905)1.4 (1.3 to 1.6)<0.0011.4† (1.3 to 1.6)<0.001
Severe sleep disturbance77 (188)2.5 (1.8 to 3.3)<0.0012.2† (1.6 to 3.0)<0.001
  • The associations are presented as crude and adjusted ORs and 95% CIs.

  • *Adjusted for socioeconomic class, workload and support from superiors.

  • †Adjusted for economic stress.ns, non-significant.