Table 3

Characteristics of secondary publications citing evidence of possible ghostwriting

PublicationCited evidenceConsistent with cited source(s)Comment
Elliot34PrimaryNoDid not distinguish GW from GA
Moffat and Elliott35PrimaryNoDid not distinguish GW from GA
Schiefe36PrimaryNoDid not distinguish GW from GA
MacLennan et al37PrimaryNoDid not distinguish GW from GA
Nahai38SecondaryNoDid not distinguish GW from GA
Ngai39PrimaryYesDid not distinguish GW from GA
Bosch40PrimaryYesDid not distinguish GW from GA
Wiwanitkit41PrimaryNoDid not distinguish GW from GA or GA from guest authorship
Krimsky42PrimaryNoDid not distinguish GW from GA or GA from guest authorship
Langdon-Neuner 200843Primary and secondaryNoDid not distinguish GW from GA or GW from disclosed medical writing support
Tharyan44PrimaryYesDid not distinguish GW from GA or GW from disclosed medical writing assistance
Paul45PrimaryYesDid not distinguish GW from GA from disclosed medical writing assistance
Bavdekar46PrimaryNoDid not distinguish GW from GA and generalised evidence to a wider population
Górski and Letkiewicz47Primary and secondaryNoDid not distinguish GW from GA and generalised evidence to a wider population
Matias-Guiu and García-Ramos48Primary and secondaryNoDid not distinguish GW from GA and generalised evidence to a wider population
McHenry49Gov. reportNoGeneralised evidence to a wider population
Healy50Primary and secondaryNo/NDGeneralised evidence to a wider population and reported personal opinion of GW prevalence
Abbasi4SecondaryNoSecondary publication cited named individual
Mitrany51NoneNDCited named individual
Collier5NoneNDCited named individual
Kmietowicz52NoneNDCited named individual
Matthews3NoneNDCited unpublished data
Bonita et al53PrimaryYesConsistent with cited source
Anon 201154PrimaryYesConsistent with cited source
Anon 200755PrimaryYesConsistent with cited source
Editors15PrimaryYesConsistent with cited source
Baethge56PrimaryYesConsistent with cited source
Flanagin 201057PrimaryYesConsistent with cited source
Murray et al58PrimaryYesConsistent with cited source
Moore59SecondaryYesConsistent with cited source
Hargreaves60PrimaryYesConsistent with cited source
Jones61PrimaryYesConsistent with cited source
  • CSE, Council of Science Editors; GA, ghost authoring; Gov, government; GW, ghostwriting; ND, not determined.