Table 4

Unadjusted and adjusted* mean difference/ORs (95% CI) for health-related pregnancy characteristics for ethnic and generation groups

 White British N=3503All Pakistani births N=3656Pakistani subgroups defined by place of birth of parents
Pakistani: Woman and partner UK born†
N=383
Pakistani: Woman UK born, partner SA born†
N=992
Pakistani: Partner UK born, woman SA born†
N=876
Pakistani: Woman and partner SA born†
N=1060
Pakistani: other
N=345
Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy
 Number (%)239 (7)188 (5)16 (4)51 (5)43 (5)66 (6)12 (3)
 Unadjusted OR10.74 (0.61 to 0.90)0.59 (0.35 to 0.99)0.74 (0.54 to 1.01)0.70 (0.51 to 0.98)0.91 (0.68 to 1.20)0.49 (0.27 to 0.89)
 Adjusted OR: model 1*10.82 (0.67 to 1.01)0.62 (0.37 to 1.04)0.82 (0.59 to 1.12)0.85 (0.61 to 1.19)0.99 (0.74 to 1.33)0.56 (0.31 to 1.01)
 Adjusted OR: model 2‡10.82 (0.64 to 1.04)0.62 (0.36 to 1.06)0.81 (0.58 to 1.13)0.87 (0.59 to 1.29)1.01 (0.73 to 1.40)0.56 (0.31 to 1.03)
 Adjusted OR: model 3§10.87 (0.67 to 1.13)0.78 (0.45 to 1.35)0.80 (0.56 to 1.14)1.06 (0.70 to 1.61)1.06 (0.75 to 1.49)0.57 (0.31 to 1.06)
Gestational diabetes
 Number (%)172 (5)406 (11)30 (8)96 (10)92 (11)159 (15)29 (8)
 Unadjusted OR12.42 (2.01 to 2.91)1.65 (1.09 to 2.46)2.07 (1.59 to 2.69)2.27 (1.74 to 2.96)3.42 (2.72 to 4.29)1.78 (1.18 to 2.68)
 Adjusted OR: model 1*12.41 (1.98 to 2.94)1.66 (1.10 to 2.49)2.07 (1.58 to 2.71)2.54 (1.92 to 3.35)3.01 (2.36 to 3.83)2.24 (1.47 to 3.41)
 Adjusted OR: model 2‡12.28 (1.82 to 2.86)1.66 (1.09 to 2.53)1.98 (1.49 to 2.64)2.47 (1.79 to 3.39)2.89 (2.20 to 3.82)2.21 (1.44 to 3.40)
 Adjusted OR: model 3§12.38 (1.86 to 3.03)1.89 (1.23 to 2.92)1.98 (1.46 to 2.67)2.82 (2.01 to 3.97)3.04 (2.27 to 4.08)2.29 (1.47 to 3.56)
Fasting glucose Mean (SD)4.41 (0.41)4.62 (0.62)4.54 (0.47)4.58 (0.64)4.54 (0.48)4.73 (0.76)4.60 (0.53)
 Unadjusted mean difference00.20 (0.18 to 0.23)0.13 (0.08 to 0.19)0.17 (0.14 to 0.21)0.13 (0.09 to 0.17)0.32 (0.29 to 0.36)0.19 (0.13 to 0.25)
 Adjusted mean difference: model 1*00.18 (0.16 to 0.21)0.12 (0.06 to 0.17)0.15 (0.11 to 0.19)0.12 (0.09 to 0.16)0.27 (0.24 to 0.31)0.22 (0.16 to 0.27)
 Adjusted mean difference: model 2‡00.18 (0.15 to 0.21)0.12 (0.06 to 0.18)0.15 (0.11 to 0.19)0.12 (0.07 to 0.16)0.27 (0.23 to 0.31)0.22 (0.16 to 0.27)
 Adjusted mean difference: model 3§00.20 (0.17 to 0.24)0.17 (0.12 to 0.23)0.16 (0.12 to 0.19)0.17 (0.12 to 0.21)0.29 (0.25 to 0.33)0.23 (0.17 to 0.29)
Postload glucose
 Mean (SD)5.47 (1.30)5.89 (1.68)5.59 (1.35)5.81 (1.58)5.82 (1.50)6.12 (2.02)5.73 (1.45)
 Unadjusted mean difference00.42 (0.35 to 0.49)0.12 (−0.04 to 0.28)0.34 (0.23 to 0.45)0.35 (0.24 to 0.46)0.72 (0.62 to 0.83)0.26 (0.09 to 0.42)
 Adjusted mean difference: model 1*00.37 (0.29 to 0.44)0.08 (−0.07 to 0.24)0.29 (0.18 to 0.39)0.35 (0.24 to 0.46)0.58 (0.48 to 0.69)0.35 (0.19 to 0.51)
 Adjusted mean difference: model 2‡00.35 (0.27 to 0.43)0.10 (−0.06 to 0.26)0.28 (0.17 to 0.39)0.33 (0.20 to 0.46)0.56 (0.44 to 0.68)0.34 (0.18 to 0.51)
 Adjusted mean difference: model 3§00.37 (0.28 to 0.45)0.18 (0.02 to 0.34)0.27 (0.16 to 0.38)0.39 (0.26 to 0.52)0.57 (0.45 to 0.69)0.35 (0.18 to 0.52)
Fasting insulin Mean (SD)81.40 (46.72)100.28 (62.76)92.66 (65.59)100.76 (56.46)91.75 (49.04)106.11 (68.84)111.09 (81.89)
Unadjusted mean difference018.88 (16.31 to 21.45)11.26 (5.42 to 17.09)19.36 (15.46 to 23.26)10.36 (6.26 to 14.45)24.71 (20.91 to 28.51)29.69 (23.58 to 35.81)
Adjusted mean difference: model 1*018.08 (15.42 to 20.74)10.98 (5.13 to 16.82)18.59 (14.64 to 22.54)9.67 (5.51 to 13.83)23.36 (19.43 to 27.30)29.69 (23.55 to 35.82)
Adjusted mean difference: model 2‡021.29 (18.13 to 24.45)14.01 (7.95 to 20.08)20.62 (16.40 to 24.83)13.53 (8.73 to 18.34)25.24 (20.89 to 29.59)32.01 (25.72 to 38.31)
Adjusted mean difference: model 3§025.71 (22.73 to 28.69)24.44 (19.03 to 29.86)21.29 (17.47 to 25.13)23.27 (18.86 to 27.68)29.03 (25.04 to 33.02)34.79 (29.18 to 40.39)
  • *Adjusted for maternal age; parity.

  • †All four parents of the woman and her partner South Asian (SA) born.

  • ‡Adjusted for maternal age; parity; employment status; level of education, receipt of means tested benefits; housing tenure.

  • §Adjusted for maternal age; parity; employment status; level of education, receipt of means tested benefits; housing tenure; early pregnancy body mass index; smoking in pregnancy.