Table 3

Adjusted logistic regression model with context and resource variables as predictors of EarlyBF

VariablesKDHS 1998KDHS 2003KDHS 2008–2009
βOR95% CISignificance (p value)βOR95% CISignificance (p value)βOR95% CISignificance (p value)
Residence0.052 0.583 0.124
 Urban (reference)  
 Rural0.4111.511.00 to 2.290.1091.120.76 to 1.65−0.4040.670.40 to 1.12
Province0.000 0.000 0.000
 Eastern (reference)  
 Nyanza0.8742.401.55 to 3.710.4851.631.03 to 2.570.3101.360.83 to 2.23
 Western0.9562.601.58 to 4.281.5754.833.02 to 7.731.8246.203.68 to 10.43
 Central−0.3020.740.44 to 1.26−0.0180.980.64 to 1.511.0132.751.61 to 4.71
 Rift Valley−0.1260.880.56 to 1.380.0231.020.68 to 1.540.4231.530.83 to 2.79
 Nairobi0.6741.960.95 to 4.040.2251.250.69 to 2.280.2881.330.67 to 2.67
 Coast0.8422.321.37 to 3.952.0167.513.92 to 14.371.4304.182.16 to 8.07
Wealth Index0.206 0.761 0.945
 Richest (reference)  
 Richer−0.1250.880.55 to 1.41−0.2180.800.54 to 1.19−0.1370.870.51 to 1.48
 Middle−0.1660.850.52 to 1.38−0.2820.750.48 to 1.18−0.0620.940.52 to 1.71
 Poorer0.2061.230.75 to 2.03−0.2410.790.51 to 1.22−0.1080.900.50 to 1.62
 Poorest0.0721.070.63 to 1.82−0.1730.840.53 to 1.350.0131.010.55 to 1.86
Maternal education0.141 0.011 0.003
 Secondary+ (reference)  
 Incomplete secondary0.5861.801.08 to 2.980.4101.510.95 to 2.400.2451.280.72 to 2.28
 Complete primary0.3691.450.96 to 2.190.3401.410.97 to 2.040.3241.380.86 to 2.24
 Incomplete primary0.4841.621.07 to 2.460.6111.841.24 to 2.740.7862.191.37 to 3.52
 No education0.5481.730.92 to 3.250.1221.130.57 to 2.240.4281.530.70 to 3.36
Maternal literacy0.106 0.924 0.045
 Reads easily (reference)  
 Reads with difficulty−0.2430.630.38 to 1.05−0.0720.930.61 to 1.43−0.3860.680.44 to 1.05
 Cannot read−0.4590.780.59 to 1.05−0.0640.940.62 to 1.420.2251.250.82 to 1.91
Maternal occupation0.517 0.865 0.085
 White collar (reference)  
 Blue collar0.1801.200.85 to 1.680.0591.060.77 to 1.460.3601.430.95 to 2.16
 Not working0.1641.180.87 to 1.610.0871.090.79 to 1.500.4681.601.06 to 2.41
Mother reads newspaper0.313 0.043 0.058
 Yes (reference)  
 No−0.1400.870.66 to 1.14−0.2710.760.59 to 0.99−0.3090.730.53 to 1.01
Mother watches TV0.262 0.408 0.314
 Yes (reference)  
 No−0.2030.820.57 to 1.16−0.1090.900.69 to 1.16−0.1700.840.61 to 1.18
Mother listens to radio0.047 0.210 0.054
 Yes (reference)  
 No0.2111.241.00 to 1.52−0.2060.810.59 to 1.12−0.3750.690.47 to 1.01
r2=0.075r2=0.110r2=0.106
  • EarlyBF, early initiation of breastfeeding; KDHS, Kenya Demographic and Health Survey; r2, Cox and Snell pseudo r2; Secondary+, complete secondary and/or higher education; TV, television.