Table 1

Incidence of HZ

CountryAuthorStudy design and populationCase ascertainmentYearHZ casesAgeIncidence 1000 person- years95% CI
USARagozzinoMedical records database in MinnesotaICD-9 confirmed by medical records1945–1959590All ages1.311.15 to 1.35*
USADonahueHealth maintenance organisation claims database in MassachusettsICD-9 confirmed by medical records1990–19921075All ages2.152.02 to 2.28*
USAInsingaMarketScan claims database in the USAICD-92000–20019152All ages3.203.10 to 3.20
USAMulloolyKaiser Northwest health maintenance organisation claims databaseICD-9 multiplied by positive predictive value1997–20029895All ages3.693.58 to 3.82
USAYihAnnual random-digit telephone survey in MassachusettsSurvey from patients1999–2003194All ages4.333.72 to 4.93*
USAJumaanHealth maintenance organisation claims database in WashingtonICD-91992–2002357All ages3.71
USAOxmanZostavax trial in the control groupNotified by physicians and PCR/culture confirmation1998–2001642≥60 years11.12
USAYawnRetrospective population-based study confirmed by medical records in MinnesotaICD-9 confirmed by medical records1996–20011669≥22 years3.603.40 to 3.70
USARimlandNational Veterans Affairs claims databaseICD-92000–2007†28 710All ages5.22
USALeungMarketScan claims databaseICD-91993–2006†48 000All ages4.404.30 to 4.40
USATsengKaiser Southern California health maintenance organisation claims database in the unvaccinated groupICD-92007–20094606≥60 years13.012.6 to 13.3
USALanganMedicare claims database in the unvaccinated groupICD-92007–200919 385≥65 years15.114.9 to 15.3
USAChenCommercial, Medicare and Medicaid MarketScan claims databaseICD-92005–2009435 378≥18 years4.824.81 to 4.84
USAHalesMedicare claims databaseICD-91992–2010†281 317≥65 years14.214.0 to 14.5
CanadaBrissonAdministrative claims database in ManitobaICD-91979–1997†NAAll ages3.48
CanadaRussellHealth insurance claims database in AlbertaICD-9/ICD-101986–2002†NAAll ages4.30
CanadaEdgarAdministrative claims database in British ColumbiaICD-91994–2003114 596All ages2.89
CanadaTanuseputroAdministrative claims database in OntarioICD-91992–2010686 763All ages3.23
CanadaRussellHealth insurance claims database in AlbertaICD-9/ICD-101994–2010†213 265All ages4.50
UKHope-SimpsonProspective population-based study in CirencesterMedical records by GP1947–1962192All ages3.39
UKRossProspective population-based study in GlasgowNotified by 10 GPs1972–197387All ages2.40
UKBrissonRCGP database in England and WalesICD-9 medical records by GPs1979–1997†NAAll ages3.82
UKBrissonRCGP database in England and WalesICD-9 medical records by 69 GPs1991–2000NAAll ages3.73
UKFlemingRCGP database in England and WalesICD-9 medical records by GPs1994–2001†14 532All ages3.90
UKChapmanRCGP database in England and WalesICD-9 medical records by GPs1994–2001NA≥15 years3.95
UKScottProspective population-based study in East LondonNotified by 18 GPs and PCR confirmationNA186All ages1.85
UKGauthierGPRD in UKMedical records by 603 GPs2000–200627 225≥50 years5.235.17 to 5.29
FranceChidiacProspective sentinel surveillanceNotified by 4635 GPs and 513 dermatologists1997–19988103All ages4.80
FranceCzernichowRetrospective population-based studySurvey from 744 GPs1998605All ages3.203.00 to 3.40
FranceGonzalez- ChiappeProspective sentinel surveillanceNotified by 1200 GPs2005–20082375All ages3.823.64 to 4.05
FranceMickRetrospective population-based studySurvey from 231 GPs, 41 dermatologists and 15 neurologists2005777≥50 years8.998.34 to 9.64
GermanyPaulProspective population-based study in AnsbachNotified by GPs, dermatologists and others1992–1993152All ages2.26
GermanySchiffner-RoheNational Statutory Health Insurance claims databaseICD-1020041170≥50 years9.809.20 to 10.40
GermanyUltschNational Statutory Health Insurance claims databaseICD-102007–2008374 645≥50 years9.609.56 to 9.63
GermanyUltschNational Statutory Health Insurance claims databaseICD-102004–20095384All ages5.795.64 to 5.93
The NetherlandsOpsteltenHuisartsen Netwerk Utrecht database in six locationsMedical records from 22 GPs1994–1999837All ages3.402.90 to 3.90
The Netherlandsde MelkerProspective sentinel surveillanceNotified by 43 GPs1998–2001NAAll ages3.25
The NetherlandsOpsteltenNational survey of physiciansMedical records from 104 GPs20011080All ages3.223.00 to 3.40
The NetherlandsPierikRetrospective population-based study in AlmereMedical records from 22 GPs2004–20083371All ages4.754.06 to 5.44
SwitzerlandRichardProspective sentinel surveillanceNotified by 250 physicians1998–20012236All ages2.36
BelgiumBilckeRetrospective population-based studyNotified by 150 GPs2000–2007NAAll ages3.78
SpainPérez-FarinósProspective sentinel surveillance in MadridNotified by GPs1997–2004†1798All ages3.593.22 to 3.97
SpainGarcía CenozPrimary care database in NavarreMedical records from GPs2005–20064959All ages4.15
SpainCebrián-CuencaProspective population-based study in ValenciaNotified by 25 GPs2006–2007146≥14 years4.103.40 to 4.70
SpainMorant-TalamanteElectronic medical record database in ValenciaICD-92007–201085 586All ages4.604.57 to 4.63
SpainEsteban-VasalloElectronic medical record in the Madrid regional public health systemICPC2005–2012†211 650All ages4.82
Italydi Luzio PaparattiRetrospective population-based studySurvey from 71 GPs1995408≥15 years4.143.75 to 4.56
ItalyDi LegamiProspective population-based study in PiedmontNotified by 24 GPs200446≥14 years1.741.28 to 2.32
ItalyGialloretiNational primary-care database (Societa Italiana Medici Generici)Medical records from 342 GPs2003–20055675All ages4.314.11 to 4.52
IcelandHelgasonProspective population-based studyNotified by 62 GPs1990–1995462All ages2.001.80 to 2.20
SwedenStudahlSwedish National Pharmacy registerPrescriptions for antiviral medications2006–2010127 832All ages2.70
GreeceLionisProspective population-based study in rural CreteNotified by 19 GPs2007–200958All ages1.60
IsraelWeitzmanMaccabi Healthcare Services claims databaseICD-92006–201028 977All ages3.46
Saudi ArabiaAlaklobyMedical records from the dermatology clinicMedical charts from the dermatologist1988–2006141All ages6.205.18 to 7.22*
AustraliaSteinNational GP database (Bettering the Evaluation of Care and Health)Medical records of GPs2000–2006379≥50 years9.678.66 to 10.68
TaiwanJihTaiwan National Health Insurance claims databaseICD-92000–200634 280All ages4.894.76 to 5.04*
TaiwanLinTaiwan National Health Insurance claims databaseICD-92000–2005672 782All ages4.974.96 to 4.98
TaiwanChaoTaiwan National Health Insurance claims databaseICD-92000–200811 908All ages5.67
South KoreaParkNANA1999–20031089All ages2.98
South KoreaChoiHealth Insurance claims database (estimated prevalence)ICD-102003–20072 431 744All ages9.97
JapanToyamaProspective population-based study in MiyazakiNotified by 46 dermatology clinics1997–200648 388All ages4.154.12 to 4.19*
ArgentinaVujacichMedical records from the ID reference centreMedical charts from IDs2000–2005302All ages3.573.17 to 3.97*
BrazilCastroMedical records from the dermatology clinicMedical charts from the dermatologist1987–1989469All ages5.62*
ColombiaGaitanMedical records from the oncology, radiology and nuclear medicine centreMedical charts from patients without cancerNA75NA6.50*
  • *We computed the overall estimate or 95% CI based on the study results.

  • †The estimate from the latest study year.

  • GP, general practitioner; GPRD, general practice research database; HZ, herpes zoster; ICD, International Classification of Diseases; ICPC, International Classification For Primary Care; RCGP, Royal College of GPs.