Table 1

Key constructs, definitions and measures (adapted from Witte et al40)

Definitions of constructsHow measured on RBD scale or other
Perceived threat: awareness of a specific harm in the environment, consisting ofTotal of perceived threat scores
Susceptibility to threat: belief about one's risk of experiencing the threatSubtotal of susceptibility scores
Severity of threat belief about the magnitude of the threatSubtotal of severity scores
Perceived efficacy: thoughts about ease, feasibility and the effectiveness of averting the threat, consisting ofTotal of perceived efficacy scores
Self-efficacy: belief in one's ability to perform recommended responseSubtotal of self-efficacy scores
Response efficacy: belief about effectiveness of recommended response to avert the threatSubtotal of response efficacy scores
Danger control dominance: the dominant response in the person faced with a threat, who considers themselves able to perform the recommended response, believes the response to be effective, therefore tries to reduce the danger by taking positive action (protective motivation)High-efficacy score and high-threat score
Danger control responses (protective motivation): beliefs, attitudes, intentions, and behaviour changes in accordance with the message recommendationsScore from intentions to quit/seek help scales (Wong and Cappella) and responses to MTSS questions
Fear control dominance: the dominant emotional response in the person when faced with a threat, who feels unable to perform the recommended response and/or believes the response to be ineffectual, and tries to psychologically reduce their fear by defensive motivationLow-efficacy score with high-threat score
Fear control responses (defensive motivation): coping responses that diminish fearScore from questions about defensive avoidance, denial, reactance, message derogation and perceived manipulation
Critical point: when perceptions of threat begin to outweigh perceptions of efficacy, causing shift from danger control to fear control processesThe exact critical point can vary with topics and populations
Discriminating value: a numerical value used to discriminate between people in danger vs fear controlFormula: (∑ perceived efficacy)−(∑ perceived threat)=discriminating value
A positive score indicates danger control processes; a negative score indicates fear control processes
Protective responses: similar to danger control responses, but beliefs/attitudes are centred around protecting others from tobacco smokeScore from 5 new measures to attitudes about smoking exposure for Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islanders, babies and children
  • RBD, risk behaviour diagnosis; MTSS, motivation to stop smoking; Σ, sum of.