Table 3

Multivariate linear regression of subscales of HADS and NEI VFQ-25 according to the comprehension of patients with glaucoma

Knowledge of glaucomaComplianceHabitsTotal comprehension
Subscaleβ Coefficient (SE)p Valueβ Coefficient (SE)p Valueβ Coefficient (SE)p Valueβ Coefficient (SE)p Value
HADS-A
 Model 1−0.0 (0.0)0.471−0.1 (0.1)0.2380.0 (0.1)0.986−0.0 (0.0)0.405
 Model 2−0.1 (0.1)0.168−0.2 (0.1)0.058−0.2 (0.1)0.174−0.1 (0.0)0.040
 Model 3−0.1 (0.1)0.244−0.1 (0.1)0.085−0.1 (0.1)0.258−0.1 (0.0)0.074
HADS-D
 Model 1−0.5 (0.1)<0.001−0.7 (0.1)<0.001−1.1 (0.1)<0.001−0.3 (0.0)<0.001
 Model 2−0.3 (0.1)<0.001−0.4 (0.1)<0.001−0.7 (0.1)<0.001−0.2 (0.0)<0.001
 Model 3−0.2 (0.1)<0.001−0.3 (0.1)<0.001−0.7 (0.1)<0.001−0.2 (0.0)<0.001
HADS
 Model 1−0.5 (0.1)<0.001−0.8 (0.1)<0.001−1.1 (0.2)<0.001−0.4 (0.0)<0.001
 Model 2−0.3 (0.1)0.002−0.5 (0.2)<0.001−0.9 (0.2)<0.001−0.3 (0.1)<0.001
 Model 3−0.3 (0.1)0.008−0.5 (0.1)<0.001−0.8 (0.2)<0.001−0.3 (0.1)<0.001
General health
 Model 10.3 (0.2)0.1540.5 (0.3)0.1350.3 (0.5)0.5000.2 (0.1)0.128
 Model 20.3 (0.3)0.2590.4 (0.4)0.2420.5 (0.5)0.3580.2 (0.2)0.145
 Model 30.2 (0.3)0.4630.3 (0.4)0.3550.3 (0.5)0.5420.2 (0.2)0.306
General vision
 Model 10.9 (0.3)<0.0011.5 (0.4)<0.0011.6 (0.6)0.0040.6 (0.1)<0.001
 Model 21.0 (0.3)0.0011.4 (0.4)<0.0011.6 (0.6)0.0070.8 (0.2)<0.001
 Model 30.7 (0.3)0.0121.2 (0.4)0.0021.2 (0.6)0.0300.6 (0.2)<0.001
Ocular pain
 Model 10.1 (0.3)0.5970.1 (0.4)0.8590.1 (0.6)0.8720.1 (0.1)0.685
 Model 20.4 (0.3)0.2220.1 (0.5)0.8830.5 (0.6)0.4280.2 (0.2)0.303
 Model 30.2 (0.3)0.590−0.1 (0.4)0.7980.3 (0.6)0.6620.1 (0.2)0.732
Near activity
 Model 12.0 (0.4)<0.0013.0 (0.6)<0.0013.1 (0.8)<0.0011.3 (0.2)<0.001
 Model 21.5 (0.4)<0.0012.2 (0.6)<0.0012.5 (0.9)0.0041.2 (0.3)<0.001
 Model 31.1 (0.4)0.0061.8 (0.6)0.0011.9 (0.8)0.0170.9 (0.2)<0.001
Distance activity
 Model 11.7 (0.3)<0.0012.7 (0.5)<0.0013.5 (0.8)<0.0011.1 (0.2)<0.001
 Model 21.3 (0.4)0.0032.1 (0.6)<0.0013.3 (0.9)<0.0011.2 (0.3)<0.001
 Model 30.9 (0.4)0.0301.7 (0.5)0.0022.6 (0.8)<0.0010.9 (0.2)<0.001
Social function
 Model 10.5 (0.3)0.0671.0 (0.4)0.0211.1 (0.6)0.0690.4 (0.2)0.019
 Model 20.7 (0.3)0.0491.2 (0.5)0.0131.8 (0.7)0.0080.6 (0.2)0.002
 Model 30.4 (0.3)0.2050.9 (0.4)0.0351.3 (0.6)0.0320.4 (0.2)0.020
Mental health
 Model 10.1 (0.3)0.853−0.1 (0.4)0.834−0.1 (0.6)0.847−0.0 (0.2)0.984
 Model 20.3 (0.3)0.3370.1 (0.5)0.7660.9 (0.7)0.1770.2 (0.2)0.267
 Model 30.2 (0.3)0.617−0.0 (0.5)0.9560.6 (0.6)0.3500.1 (0.2)0.577
Role difficulties
 Model 10.0 (0.3)0.985−0.1 (0.5)0.880−0.4 (0.8)0.622−0.0 (0.2)0.865
 Model 20.8 (0.4)0.0660.7 (0.6)0.2660.7 (0.9)0.3870.5 (0.3)0.066
 Model 30.5 (0.4)0.2000.4 (0.6)0.4510.3 (0.8)0.6760.3 (0.3)0.225
Dependency
 Model 10.6 (0.3)0.074−0.2 (0.5)0.7730.4 (0.7)0.6360.2 (0.2)0.304
 Model 20.5 (0.4)0.217−0.7 (0.6)0.2530.7 (0.8)0.3970.1 (0.3)0.618
 Model 30.5 (0.4)0.288−0.7 (0.6)0.2300.7 (0.9)0.4060.1 (0.3)0.716
Colour vision
 Model 10.8 (0.3)0.0061.3 (0.5)0.0071.9 (0.7)0.0060.6 (0.2)0.001
 Model 20.9 (0.4)0.0241.3 (0.6)0.0162.4 (0.8)0.0020.8 (0.2)<0.001
 Model 30.7 (0.4)0.0801.1 (0.5)0.0362.1 (0.8)0.0070.7 (0.2)0.005
Peripheral vision
 Model 1−0.2 (0.3)0.4890.0 (0.4)0.965−0.2 (0.6)0.723−0.1 (0.2)0.641
 Model 20.3 (0.3)0.3730.6 (0.5)0.1891.2 (0.7)0.0660.3 (0.2)0.098
 Model 30.0 (0.3)0.8850.3 (0.4)0.4170.8 (0.6)0.2150.2 (0.2)0.414
Composite score
 Model 10.6 (0.2)0.0030.9 (0.3)0.0081.0 (0.5)0.0320.4 (0.1)0.002
 Model 20.7 (0.3)0.0050.8 (0.3)0.0161.4 (0.5)0.0040.5 (0.1)<0.001
 Model 30.5 (0.2)0.0450.6 (0.3)0.0511.1 (0.5)0.0190.4 (0.1)0.006
  • Comprehension of glaucoma, compliance, habits and total comprehension were independent variables in the models. Model 1: crude; model 2: adjustment for age, gender, educational level, living status, marital status, duration of glaucoma, type of glaucoma, medication, past laser treatment and past surgical treatment; model 3: further adjustment for best corrected visual acuity of worse-seeing eye, higher intraocular pressure in both eyes, and mean deviation of visual field in worse-seeing eye based on model 2.

  • HADS, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale; HADS-A, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale-Anxiety; HADS-D, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale-Depression; NEI VFQ-25, 25-item National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire.