Table 2

Risk assessment tools used by emergency department and mental health staff (categories not mutually exclusive)

DescriptionFrequency of use by emergency departmentsFrequency of use by mental health services
Published risk scales*
Suicide Intent Scale2911
Pierce Suicide Intent Scale2811
Beck Depression Inventory361
All other risk assessment tools
Structured pro forma (developed locally)1322
Galatean Risk Screening Tool (GRiST)1
Emergency department mental health/suicide risk assessment form3
Safe-risk pro forma1
Functional analysis of care environments (FACE)1
Emergency department doctors’ handbook1
Mental health clustering tool1
Threshold assessment grid (TAG)2
Policy on intranet1
Risk assessment based on the care programme approach (or using CPA forms)36
CARSO: clinical assessment of risks to self and others11
Rapid assessment and treatment tool1
St George's tool2
Computerised assessment system12
Initial screening assessment form‡11
Risk assessment matrix21
  • *Published scales, which have undergone psychometric testing (eg, to evaluate reliability, predictive ability, diagnostic accuracy and construct, internal and external validity; Bossuyt et al, 2003).15

  • †Section of pro forma based on Suicide Intent Scale (mental health services).

  • ‡Tool taken from Morgan.37