Table 2

Study inclusion criteria

Study population entry criteria‘Shock’ criteria
StudyAge rangeSevere illnessBlood pressurePulse rateCapillary refillExtremitiesPeripheral pulseUrine outputMental status
Maitland 201160 days to 12 yearsSevere febrile illness complicated by impaired consciousness (prostration or coma), respiratory distress (increased work of breathing) or bothandorSevere tachycardia*or≥3 sorLower limb temperature gradientorWeak radial pulse volume
Oliveira 2008Median age: 36–47 monthsSepsis was defined using the Society of Critical Care Medicine Consensus Conference22and<5th centile for ageoror<1 s or >3 sorMottled/coolorDecreasedor<1 mL/kg/horAltered
Han 20031–131 monthsSuspected infection as manifested by hyperthermia or hypothermiaand<5th centile for ageoror>3 sorMottledorDiminishedorDecreased
Carcillo 1991Median age 13.5 months (range 1–192 months)Sepsis was diagnosed if the patient had a positive blood culture or if a pathological organism from a tissue site was identifiedand<2 SD below mean+ 3 ofTachycardia†ororMottled/coolorDecreasedor<1 mL/kg/h‡
Santhanam 20081–12 monthsSeptic shock was defined using the Sepsis Consensus Conference criteria23andorTachycardia+ 1 of>2 sorMottled/coolorDecreasedorDecreasedorAltered alertness
Carcillo 2009Newborn to 18 yearsUnclear from the information provided††and<5th centile for ageorTachycardiaor>3 sorMottledorororAltered
  • *>180 bpm in children younger than 12 months of age, >160 bpm in children 1–5 years of age, or 140 bpm in children older than 5 years of age.

  • †Heart rate >180 bpm for patients less than 5 years of age; and >160 bpm for patients at least 5 years of age.

  • ††No definition of sepsis provided.

  • ‡Or less than 20 mL/h in children weighing more than 20 kg.