Table 2

Demographic data and Engel classification 24 months after surgery in 189 patients

Variables/predictorsEngel class IEngel class IIEngel class IIIEngel class IV*F, χ2, ψdfp Value
Age (years)37.4 (±9.6)38.9 (±9.0)45.0 (±7.5)28.2 (±8.8)3.343/1850.020
Duration illness (years)23.0 (±10.8)22.1 (±11.7)29.0 (±14.7)20.5 (±6.9)0.893/1850.444
Age at onset (years)14.5 (±9.4)16.8 (±6.2)16.0 (±7.9)7.7 (±14.5)1.173/1850.324
Gender (male/female ratio)83/846/36/21/40.6910.406
Number of seizures prior to epilepsy surgery8.5 (±13.4)35.9 (±70.7)26.4 (±30.3)65.6 (±124.6)10.353/185<0.001
Number of seizures after epilepsy surgery0.00 (±0.00)1.71 (±1.51)9.0 (±9.4)91.8 (±137.8)33.133/185<0.001
Focal vs focal with secondarily generalised seizures160/79/08/04/1−0.01*0.764
TLE vs ETLE156/117/27/11/414.361<0.001
Epilepsy locationSee text
LesionSee text
Hippocampal sclerosis128750
No lesion3010
Familial history of epilepsia: yes/no26/1413/63/52/35.7010.017
DD first 3 months after surgery: yes/no18/1491/82/63/24.7710.029
Preoperative psychosis: yes/no7/1602/72/60/50.19*0.026
  • *F: results of analyses of variance with the four Engel groups as categories; χ2: results of analyses of contingency tables. In order to perform χ2 tests, we have combined groups and examined the differences between Engel class I versus II+III+IV. When we were unable to use χ2 tests, we have used Fisher's exact probability test with ψ values.

  • AVM, arteriovenous malformation; DD, dysphoric disorder; ETLE, extratemporal lobe epilepsy; FCD, focal cortical dysplasia; TLE, temporal lobe epilepsy.