Table 4

Estimates from the three-level linear growth models examining body mass index among rural women (N=12 561) 2004–2011

Model 1Model 2Model 3
Intercept22.92 (0.05)*22.72 (0.09)*22.64 (0.10)*
Year (ref=2004)0.20 (0.02)*0.12 (0.02)*0.12 (0.02)*
Individual level
 Age (grand-mean centred)0.04 (0.00)*0.04 (0.00)*
 Currently married (ref=no)0.65 (0.08)*0.66 (0.08)*
 Education level (ref=no/primary/junior)−0.47 (0.08)*−0.49 (0.08)*
 Per capita household income (ref=low)0.04 (0.02)0.04 (0.02)
 Drinking (ref=no)−0.00 (0.06)−0.00 (0.06)
 Smoking (ref=no)−0.04 (0.13)−0.04 (0.13)
 Moderate/heavy physical activity (ref=no)−0.11 (0.04)*−0.10 (0.04)*
 Motorcycle ownership (ref=no)−0.00 (0.04)−0.00 (0.04)
 Car ownership (ref=no)0.01 (0.06)0.01 (0.06)
Neighbourhood level
 Number of fast-food restaurants in the neighbourhood−0.02 (0.01)*
 Number of indoor restaurants in the neighbourhood0.005 (0.002)*
 Number of fixed outdoor food stalls in the neighbourhood−0.004 (0.002)*
 Urbanicity index (ref=low)0.09 (0.04)*
Random effects
 Intercept10.16 (0.27)*9.37 (0.25)*9.32 (0.25)*
 Year0.41 (0.02)*0.41 (0.02)*0.41 (0.02)*
 Residual1.73 (0.04)*1.74 (0.04)*1.74 (0.04)*
Model fit
 −2LL57535.157098.157077.6
 AIC57547.157128.157115.6
 BIC57586.057225.257238.6
  • *p<0.05.

  • AIC, Akaike's information criterion; BIC, Bayesian information criterion.