Table 3

Estimates from the three-level linear growth models examining body mass index among rural men (N=11835) 2004–2011

Model 1Model 2Model 3
Intercept22.54 (0.05)*21.85 (0.10)*21.68 (0.10)*
Year (ref=2004)0.28 (0.02)*0.26 (0.02)*0.26 (0.02)*
Individual level
 Age (grand-mean centred)0.00 (0.00)0.00 (0.00)
 Currently married (ref=no)0.75 (0.08)*0.74 (0.08)*
 Education level (ref=no/primary/junior)0.24 (0.06)*0.22 (0.06)*
 Per capita household income (ref=low)0.11 (0.03)*0.10 (0.03)*
 Drinking (ref=no)0.12 (0.04)*0.12 (0.04)*
 Smoking (ref=no)−0.15 (0.04)*−0.15 (0.04)*
 Moderate/heavy physical activity (ref=no)−0.16 (0.04)*−0.13 (0.04)*
 Motorcycle ownership (ref=no)0.10 (0.04)*0.10 (0.04)*
 Car ownership (ref=no)0.03 (0.07)0.02 (0.07)
Neighbourhood level
 Number of fast-food restaurants in the neighbourhood−0.01 (0.01)
 Number of indoor restaurants in the neighbourhood0.01 (0.00)*
 Number of fixed outdoor food stalls in the neighbourhood−0.01 (0.00)*
 Urbanicity index (ref=low)0.19 (0.04)*
Random effects
 Intercept8.33 (0.23)*7.88 (0.23)*7.76 (0.22)*
 Year0.51 (0.03)*0.51 (0.03)*0.51 (0.03)*
 Residual1.82 (0.04)*1.83 (0.04)*1.83 (0.04)*
Model fit
 −2LL54345.254060.454017.5
 AIC54357.254090.454055.5
 BIC54395.854187.054177.8
  • *p<0.05.

  • AIC, Akaike's information criterion; BIC, Bayesian information criterion.