Table 2

Cognitive test scores and composite domain scores at baseline compared to healthy controls

Test variablesRaw scoresZ-scores and statistics
IIH baselineHealthy controls
n=31n=31Z95% CIp Value
Executive function−0.61−1.25 to 0.020.059
Intra–extra dimensional set shift
 ID/ED errorslog8.1 (0–32)4.0 (0–25)−0.94−1.54 to −0.350.002
 Total errors adjustedlog20.9 (7–177)12.2 (7–55)−0.91−1.50 to −0.320.003
Stockings of Cambridge
 Solved in minimum moves9.61 (2)10.19 (1.7)−0.28−0.87 to 0.310.31
 Initial thinking timelog, s6.5 (2–18.3)8.2 (3.1–40.7)0.49−0.11 to 1.080.11
 Subsequent thinking timelog, s0.013 (0–3.7)0.011 (0–3)0.09−0.51 to 0.680.77
Trail Making Test*
 Trail Making B-Alog, s39.2 (14.7–101.1)30.6 (16.3–98.4)−0.56−1.1 to 0.090.07
Working memory −0.56−1.19 to 0.080.08
Spatial working memory
 Strategy scorelog29.9 (20–42)24.8 (19–40)−0.75−1.35 to −0.160.01
 Total errorslog10.2 (0–79)4.7 (0–70)−0.48−1.07 to 0.120.11
Spatial span
 Span length6.4 (1.3)7.0 (1.4)−0.31−0.9 to 0.280.31
Processing speed−1.45−2.08 to −0.81<0.0001
Verbal Fluency*
 Letters19.4 (7)30.3 (8.3)−1.25−1.84 to −0.65<0.0001
 Categories39.8 (9.9)55.5 (12.3)−1.21−1.81 to −0.61<0.0001
Trail Making Test*
 Trail Making Alog, s31.5 (18–68.1)25.2 (12.8–51.4)−0.63−1.22 to −0.020.04
 Trail Making Blog, s73.5 (40.9–169.2)52.2 (31.2–131.1)−0.66−1.26 to −0.070.02
Symbol digit modalities
 Correct symbols47.8 (10.2)58.7 (9)−1.09−1.68 to −0.490.0003
Visuospatial memory−0.74−1.32 to −0.050.02
Rey-Osterrieth figure
 Immediate recall, score24.5 (5.4)28.0 (4.3)−0.67−1.26 to −0.080.03
 Delayed recall, score23.8 (5)28.0 (4.4)−0.83−1.42 to −0.240.006
Attention
Rapid visual processing
 A’ sensitivity to target0.9 (0.1)0.93 (0.1)−0.7−1.3 to −0.110.01
Reaction time−1.48−2.1 to −0.85<0.0001
 Reactionlog, ms428.7 (264.9–988.6)330.0 (247.6–464.1)−1.81−2.4 to −1.22<0.0001
 Movement, ms417.8 (86.3)338.3 (80.1)−0.84−1.43 to −0.250.006
  • Normally distributed raw score variables are shown as mean (SD). Logarithmically transformed variableslog are shown as arithmetic mean (range). Z-scores and test statistics are given in estimates from a linear mixed model adjusting for education and headache at the time of testing and multiple testing. Significant p Values are printed in italic.

  • *n=29, as Trail Making Test scores and Verbal Fluency scores from non-native Danish speakers (n=2) were omitted from analysis.

  • IIH, intracranial hypertension.