Table 3

All-cause and cause-specific crude mortality rates per 1000 person-years in prison among opioid-dependent people in New South Wales, Australia, 2000–2012 (n=16 715)

Total time in prisonFirst 4 weeks in prison
Cause of deathPYDeathsCrude mortality rate (95% CI)Rate ratio (95% CI)PYDeathsCrude mortality rate (95% CI)Rate ratio (95% CI)
All cause30 988511.6 (1.2 to 2.2)0.24 (0.12 to 0.47)2571176.6 (3.8 to 10.6)0.06 (0.01 to 0.45)
 Out of OST14 548402.7 (2 to 3.7)12631612.7 (7.2 to 20.6)
 In OST16 440110.7 (0.3 to 1.2)130810.8 (0.02 to 4.3)
Unnatural causes*27 839321.1 (0.8 to 1.6)0.15 (0.06 to 0.39)2374135.5 (2.9 to 9.4)0.07 (0.01 to 0.55)
 Out of OST12 462272.2 (1.4 to 3.2)10941211.0 (5.7 to 19.2)
 In OST15 37750.3 (0.1 to 0.8)127910.8 (0.02 to 4.4)
Suicide27 839190.7 (0.4 to 1.1)0.15 (0.04 to 0.52)2374104.2 (2 to 7.7)0.10 (0.01 to 0.75)
 Out of OST12 462161.3 (0.7 to 2.1)109498.2 (3.8 to 15.6)
 In OST15 37730.2 (0.04 to 0.6)127910.8 (0.02 to 4.4)
Drug-induced27 83960.2 (0.08 to 0.5)237410.4 (0.01 to 2.3)
 Out of OST12 46260.5 (0.2 to 1)109411.0 (0.02 to 5.1)
 In OST15 377012790
Violence27 83920.07 (0.01 to 0.3)23740
 Out of OST12 462010940
 In OST15 37720.1 (0.02 to 0.5)12790
Other injuries27 83950.2 (0.06 to 0.4)237420.8 (0.1 to 3)
 Out of OST12 46250.4 (0.1 to 0.9)109421.8 (0.2 to 6.6)
 In OST15 377012790
Natural causes27 839110.4 (0.2 to 0.7)0.68 (0.21 to 2.21)237420.8 (0.1 to 3)
 Out of OST12 46260.5 (0.2 to 1.0)109421.8 (0.2 to 6.6)
 In OST15 37750.3 (0.1 to 0.8)12790
  • Cause of death missing for eight deaths.

  • *Includes suicide, drug-induced, violent and other injury deaths.

  • OST, opioid substitution treatment; PY, person-years.