Table 2

Beliefs about current practice, facilitators and barriers to the diagnosis of LVSD and HFpEF

Diagnostic issueGPCardiologistGeneral physicianHF nurseTotal
N=251N=103N=54N=78N=494
Currently diagnose
 LVSD189 (75.3%)99 (96.1%)51 (94.4%)18 (23.1%)357 (72.3%)
 HFpEF40 (15.9%)90 (87.4%)32 (59.3%)10 (12.8%)172 (34.8%)
Confident to diagnose
 LVSD166 (66.1%)98 (95.1%)50 (92.6%)25 (32.1%)339 (68.6%)
 HFpEF17 (6.8%)60 (58.3%)23 (42.6%)5 (6.4%)105 (21.3%)
Use echocardiography to diagnose
 LVSD103 (41%)100 (97.1%)49 (90.7%)24 (30.8%)276 (55.9%)
 HFpEF54 (21.5%)94 (91.3%)36 (66.7%)16 (20.5%)200 (40.5%)
Would use echo but no access for
 LVSD4 (1.6%)0 (0%)1 (1.9%)0 (0%)5 (1%)
 HFpEF7 (2.8%)1 (1%)2 (3.7%)0 (0%)10 (2%)
Use BNP to diagnose
 LSVD69 (27.5%)16 (15.5%)7 (13.0%)7 (9.0%)99 (20.0%)
 HFpEF23 (9.2%)19 (18.4%)10 (18.5%)2 (2.6%)54 (10.9%)
Would use BNP but no access for
 LVSD82 (32.7%)24 (23.3%)27 (50.0%)8 (10.3%)141 (28.5%)
 HFpEF30 (12.0%)22 (21.4%)19 (35.2%)4 (5.1%)75 (15.2%)
Use NT-proBNP to diagnose
 LSVD45 (17.9%)26 (25.2%)6 (11.1%)6 (7.7%)83 (16.8%)
 HFpEF14 (5.6%)25 (24.3%)4 (7.4%)4 (5.1%)47 (9.5%)
Would use NT-proBNP but no access for
 LVSD57 (22.7%)30 (29.1%)17 (31.5%)9 (11.5%)113 (22.9%)
 HFpEF20 (8.0%)26 (25.2%)10 (18.5%)5 (6.4%)61 (12.3%)
Use ECGs to diagnose
 LVSD172 (68.5%)84 (81.6%)40 (74.1%)15 (19.2%)311 (63.0%)
 HFpEF43 (17.1%)66 (64.1%)27 (50.0%)12 (15.4%)148 (30.0%)
Would use ECGs but no access for
 LVSD1 (0.4%)0 (0%)0 (0%)1 (1.3%)2 (0.4%)
 HFpEF2 (0.8%)0 (0%)1 (1.9%)0 (0%)3 (0.6%)
Use chest X-rays to diagnose
 LVSD156 (62.2%)67 (65.0%)42 (77.8%)9 (11.5%)274 (55.5%)
 HFpEF44 (17.5%)65 (63.1%)28 (51.9%)6 (7.7%)143 (28.9%)
Would use chest X-rays but no access for
 LVSD3 (1.2%)0 (0%)0 (0%)0 (0%)3 (0.6%)
 HFpEF5 (2.0%)0 (0%)1 (1.9%)0 (0%)6 (1.2%)
Use clinical assessment to diagnose
 LVSD200 (79.7%)92 (89.3%)49 (90.7%)21 (26.9%)362 (73.3%)
 HFpEF1 (0.4%)3 (2.9%)1 (1.3%)0 (0%)5 (1.0%)
  • BNP, B-type natriuretic peptide; GP, general practitioner; HF, heart failure; HFpEF, heart failure with preserved ejection fraction; LVSD, left ventricular systolic dysfunction; NT-proBNP, N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide.