Table 3

Significant predictors of benefit recipiency in adjusted logistic regression models for subgroups at risk of sick leave (n=334), on sick leave (n=529) or on long-term disability benefits (n=330)

Benefit recipiency at 6-month follow-upAt risk of sick leave*
On sick leave**
On long-term benefits***
Predictor variables†OR (95% CI)OR (95% CI)OR (95% CI)
Basic demographics
 Gender (women)1.83 (0.89 to 3.78)1.59 (0.99 to 2.56)0.37 (0.17 to 0.79)
 Age0.99 (0.95 to 1.03)0.99 (0.97 to 1.02)0.99 (0.96 to 1.02)
 Educational level1.06 (0.51 to 2.19)0.71 (0.45 to 1.10)1.46 (0.79 to 2.69)
 Uncertain1.92 (0.85 to 4.33)2.62 (1.47 to 4.67)0.61 (0.28 to 1.30)
 Negative3.03 (1.22 to 7.53)3.78 (2.11 to 6.76)2.19 (1.00 to 4.79)
Illness perceptions
 Consequences1.10 (0.94 to 1.29)
 Timeline1.01 (0.91 to 1.13)
 Personal control§
 Treatment control§
 Identity1.03 (0.90 to 1.18)
 Illness concern
 Emotional response
Causal attributions
 Personal relationships
Mental health status
 HADS total score0.99 (0.95 to 1.03)
 SHC total score1.00 (0.98 to 1.03)
 Illness duration (in years)1.03 (0.99 to 1.06)1.02 (0.99 to 1.05)
 Group allocation (intervention vs control)
 Blue-collar workers1.09 (0.65 to 1.84)
 Private disability insurance
 Work and health¶ (1–5)0.87 (0.75 to 1.02)
 Self reported health status** (1–5)1.24 (0.93 to 1.66)
  • Significant predictors highlighted in italics.

  • †Investigated in unadjusted logistic regression models for all three subgroups, significant predictors carried forward to adjusted models: *Adjusted for demographic variables gender, age educational level, illness duration and RTW-expectations. **Adjusted for demographic variables gender, age educational level, RTW-expectations, illness perception components consequences, timeline, identity, mental health and SHC, illness duration, occupational grade, beliefs concerning the effect of work on health and self-reported health status. ***Adjusted for demographic variables gender, age educational level and RTW-expectations.

  • ‡Reference category: positive RTW-expectations.

  • §Higher score indicates more adaptive illness perceptions.

  • ¶Higher score indicates perceiving work as having more positive effects on health.

  • **Higher score indicates worse self-reported health status.

  • HADS, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale; RTW, return-to-work; SHC, subjective health complaints.