Table 1

Baseline demographic and clinical characteristics of participants

Baseline workstatus
TotalAt risk of sick leave (n=334)On sick leave (n=529)On long-term benefits (n=330)
F/χ
Women (n (%))800 (67.1)197 (16.5)375 (31.4)228 (19.1)13.9*
Age40.4 (9.7)40.4 (9.9)40.3 (9.4)40.5 (9.8)0.3
University/postgraduate college (n (%))722 (60.5)213 (17.9)327 (27.5)182 (15.3)5.5
Blue-collar workers (n (%))391 (33.9)90 (7.8)166 (14.4)135 (11.7)16.6*
Private disability insurance (n (%))294 (26.2)83 (7.4)147 (13.1)64 (5.7)7.5*
Beliefs about work and health (1–5)†2.9 (1.5)3.2 (1.4)2.5 (1.4)3.1 (1.5)22.7*
Illness duration (years)8.6 (9.7)8.9 (9.7)6.5 (8.5)11.6 (10.08)23.8*
Return-to-Work Expectations (n (%))
 Positive326 (32.3)110 (10.9)155 (15.4)61 (6.1)55.3*
 Uncertain312 (31.0)63 (6.3)160 (15.9)89 (8.8)0.1
 Negative370 (36.7)37 (3.7)197 (19.5)136 (13.5)48.1*
The Brief-Illness Perception Questionnaire (B-IPQ) (0–10)
 Consequences‡7.1 (1.9)6.6 (2.1)7.2 (1.8)7.3 (1.8)15.6*
 Timeline‡5.9 (2.4)6.0 (2.5)5.5 (2.3)6.5 (2.5)16.7*
 Personal control4.1 (2.2)4.1 (2.2)4.1 (2.1)4.3 (2.2)0.6
 Treatment control6.9 (2.1)6.9 (2.1)7.0 (2.0)6.6 (2.2)3.7*
 Identity‡6.6 (2.1)6.3 (2.2)6.6 (2.0)6.9 (2.0)8.2*
 Illness concern‡6.5 (2.3)6.3 (2.4)6.5 (2.3)6.5 (2.2)0.7
 Understanding6.2 (2.4)6.0 (2.5)6.0 (2.4)6.4 (2.5)2.3
 Emotional response‡7.7 (2.0)7.6 (2.1)7.6 (2.0)7.8 (1.9)1.3
Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS)
 Total score18.8 (6.9)18.3 (6.8)19.1 (6.9)18.5 (6.8)1.6
 Anxiety (cut-off=>8) (n (%))926 (78.2)255 (21.5)421 (35.6)250 (21.1)2.2
 Depression (cut-off=>8) (n (%))633 (53.5)162 (13.7)294 (24.8)177 (14.9)4.3
Subjective health complaints
 Total score20.5 (10.6)19.2 (10.4)20.9 (10.4)21.3 (11.1)4.0*
Self-reported health status (1–5)§2.7 (0.8)2.6 (0.8)2.7 (0.8)2.9 (0.8)10.9*
  • All data are reported as mean (SD) unless stated otherwise (n (%)).

  • Significant between-group differences are reported as F values or χ in the final column to the right.

  • *Significant at the 0.05 level.

  • †Higher score indicates perceiving work participation as more beneficial for health (mental health).

  • ‡Higher score indicates more maladaptive illness perceptions.

  • §Lower score indicates better self-reported health status.