Table 4

Associations between recorded crime rates and self-reported physical health status among men and women in New Zealand (2010–2011)

Overall β (95% CI)Men β (95% CI)Women β (95% CI)Gender interaction p value
Total crime−0.09 (−0.20 to 0.01)−0.04 (−0.18 to 0.09)−0.15 (−0.29 to −0.01)0.22
 With perceived safety−0.08 (−0.18 to 0.03)−0.02 (−0.16 to 0.11)−0.13 (−0.27 to 0.00)
Violent crime−0.18 (−0.34 to −0.01)−0.04 (−0.27 to 0.20)−0.32 (−0.55 to −0.10)0.08
 With perceived safety−0.13 (−0.30 to 0.03)0.02 (−0.22 to 0.25)−0.29 (−0.51 to −0.06)
Property crime−0.13 (−0.40 to 0.13)0.07 (−0.25 to 0.38)−0.33 (−0.76 to 0.09)0.13
 With perceived safety−0.08 (−0.34 to 0.19)0.12 (−0.19 to 0.44)−0.28 (−0.71 to 0.15)
Dishonesty crime−0.10 (−0.29 to 0.09)0.05 (−0.20 to 0.30)−0.27 (−0.52 to −0.01)0.06
 With perceived safety−0.08 (−0.27 to 0.10)0.06 (−0.19 to 0.30)−0.24 (−0.49 to 0.01)
Drug and antisocial crime0.17 (0.00 to 0.33)0.24 (0.03 to 0.44)0.10 (−0.17 to 0.37)0.38
 With perceived safety0.19 (0.03 to 0.35)0.26 (0.06 to 0.47)0.12 (−0.14 to 0.39)
Crime with a weapon0.29 (−0.37 to 0.95)0.58 (−0.24 to 1.39)−0.04 (−0.97 to 0.89)0.28
 With perceived safety0.42 (−0.24 to 1.18)0.71 (−0.09 to 1.52)0.09 (−0.84 to 1.02)
Crime at night−0.11 (−0.26 to 0.03)0.04 (−0.14 to 0.23)−0.29 (−0.51 to −0.07)0.01
 With perceived safety−0.09 (−0.23 to 0.06)0.08 (−0.11 to 0.27)−0.26 (−0.48 to −0.04)
  • Coefficients and 95% CIs from cluster robust linear models are shown, and the coefficients can be interpreted as the predicted difference in self-reported physical health status (as measured by the SF-12 transformed physical component score) associated with a 1 unit increase in the category-specific crime rate; all models controlled for are age, ethnicity, place of birth, education, employment, income and smoking status; crime rates for different categories were added to separate models (not mutually adjusted), and results are shown before and after the addition of perceived safety to the models; italic face is used to indicate statistical significance (p<0.05).