Table 1

Characteristics of trials included in the analysis

SourceSettingDuration, monthsSample sizeMean (SD) age, yearsMen, n (%)T1D, n (%)T2D, n (%)More intensive interventionLess intensive interventionPercentage followed upPrimary or efficacy outcome*
Ardron et al19Diabetes clinic, UK66029 (7)29 (48)50 (83)10 (17)Doctor's advice and information pack followed by a home visit by health visitorRoutine doctor's advice100Breath CO and urinary cotinine
Canga et al2012 primary care practices and 2 hospitals, Spain628055 (15)240 (86)85 (30)195 (70)Research nurse interview with follow-up by telephone, post and visits; optional NRTUsual care including advice to stop smoking99Smoking cessation assessed by urinary cotinine
Fowler et al17University hospital, Australia61847 (9)Not reported3† (17)15† (83)In newly diagnosed diabetes; counselling (smokescreen programme) at diagnosisCounselling (smokescreen programme) 2 months after diagnosis83Plasma cotinine
Fowler et al17University hospital, Australia61653 (13)Not reported9† (56)7† (44)In pre-existing diabetes; counselling (smokescreen programme)Diabetes-specific counselling88Plasma cotinine
Hokanson et al23Large diabetes centre, USA611454 (9)65 (57)114 (100)Face-to-face counselling followed by repeated telephone counselling and optional NRT or bupropionStandard care including referral to cessation programmes63 Self-reported 7-day point prevalence of smoking cessation confirmed by saliva cotinine
Ng et al222 diabetes clinics, Indonesia67156 (9)71 (100)71 (100)Doctor's advice and visual materials with referral to cessation clinicDoctor's advice and visual materials79Self-reported 7-day point prevalence abstinence
Sawicki et al18Diabetes clinic, Germany68938 (12)54 (61)72 (81)17 (19)10 weekly behavioural sessions by a therapist with optional NRTA single unstructured session by a physician with optional NRT100Smoking cessation assessed by urine cotinine
Thankappan et al212 diabetes clinics, India622453 (9)224 (100)Not reportedNot reportedDoctor's advice, educational materials and three 30 min non-doctor counselling sessionsDoctor's advice and educational materials88Self-reported 7-day smoking abstinence
  • * Primary outcome unless it was not specified in the article.

  • † Assumption on the type of diabetes was made on the basis of reported treatment with insulin.

  • CO, carbon monoxide; NRT, nicotine replacement therapy; T1D, type 1 diabetes; T2D, type 2 diabetes.