Table 3

LWDS-11 and YACD means bivariate analysis with societal influence

Characteristic*LWDS-11 mean (SD)p ValueYACD mean (SD)p Value
Successful people smoke<0.001†<0.001‡
 Yes9.93 (5.80)12.81 (5.91)
 Maybe9.61 (5.61)12.50 (5.39)
 No11.92 (6.90)16.43 (5.66)
Cool people smoke0.1630.002§
 No9.93 (6.30)12.79 (5.91)
 Maybe9.91 (5.99)13.88 (5.95)
 Yes10.79 (5.91)14.76 (5.94)
Rich people smoke0.002†<0.001‡
 No10.04 (6.21)12.71 (5.89)
 Maybe9.55 (5.60)13.72 (5.89)
 Yes11.79 (5.86)16.69 (5.35)
My idols smoke0.030§<0.001‡
 No10.03 (6.09)12.49 (5.78)
 Maybe9.90 (5.69)12.86 (5.96)
 Yes11.43 (6.58)16.77 (5.65)
For my parents, it is important not to smoke<0.001†<0.001‡
 No13.25 (6.88)16.99 (5.24)
 Maybe10.28 (6.17)16.18 (5.51)
 Yes9.78 (5.78)12.57 (5.77)
For my friends, it is important not to smoke<0.001¶<0.001**
 No12.22 (6.50)15.49 (5.79)
 Maybe10.00(5.65)13.26 (5.52)
 Yes9.34 (5.81)13.05 (6.19)
For people of my age, it is important not to smoke0.009†0.088
 No11.33 (6.31)14.53 (6.04)
 Maybe9.37 (5.69)13.45 (5.70)
 Yes9.79 (6.03)13.39 (6.06)
  • *ANOVA was used in all comparisons, with Bonferroni adjustment.

  • †All two by two differences were significant.

  • ‡Difference was not significant between categories 1 and 2

  • §Difference between first and third categories was significant.

  • ¶Difference significant between the first two categories.

  • **Difference was not significant between categories 2 and 3.

  • ANOVA, analysis of variance; LWDS-11, Lebanese Waterpipe Dependence Scale-11; YACD, Young Adults Cigarette Dependence.